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Updates found with 'lethal metabolic disorder'

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Updates found with 'lethal metabolic disorder'

IGIB researchers partially reverse a rare disorderThe HinduR. Prasad10 FEBRUARY 2018 18:13 ISTUPDATED: 10 FEBRUARY 2018 18:14 IST The syndrome also affects about one in one lakh people, causing a range of defectResearchers at Delhi’s Institute of Genomics & Integrative Biology (CSIR-IGIB) have for the first time used zebra fish to model the rare genetic disorder — Rubinstein Taybi Syndrome (RSTS) — seen in humans. They have also used two small molecules to partially reverse some of the defects caused by the disorder in zebrafish, thus showing them to be an ideal animal model for screening drug candidates. There is currently no cure or treatment for the disorder.The Rubinstein Taybi Syndrome has a frequency of about one in one lakh people, and causes intellectual disability, growth retardation (short stature), craniofacial deformities, heart defects and broad thumbs and toes. The results were published in the journal Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease.Close to human genomeSince zebrafish genome has very close similarity to human genome and the embryonic developmental is very similar in the two, the team led by Dr. Chetana Sachidanandan at IGIB went about checking if EP300, one of the two genes that cause the disorder is present in the fish and if mutations in this gene result in a RSTS-like disease in fish.Using chemicals, the researchers inhibited the activity of the protein Ep300 to see if this resulted in the manifestation of the disorder in the brain, heart, face and pectoral fins (equivalent to forearm in humans). “Like in the case of humans, the same organs were affected in the fish when the functioning of the protein was stopped. This helped in confirming that the protein in question does the same functions in fish and humans, ” she says.Since zebrafish commonly has two copies of many human genes, the researchers first checked if one or both the genes were functional and equivalent to the human gene that causes the disorder. “We found Ep300a gene was active and functional while Ep300b was not, ” says Prof. Tapas K. Kundu from the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bengaluru, the other corresponding author. The Ep300a gene is responsible for producing a protein (Ep300) that opens up the DNA.“The protein Ep300 is evolutionarily conserved from fish to humans. Though the Ep300 gene has been earlier identified in fish, its function was not known, ” says Prof. Kundu.Reversal of effectsLike in the case of fish treated with chemicals manifesting the disorder, fish mutants that lacked the Ep300a gene too exhibited defects very similar to those seen in humans.“When we introduced excess amount of a tiny portion of the Ep300a protein in the mutants, the craniofacial deformities became less severe [mutants had severed craniofacial deformities] and pectoral fins in the fish became normal, ” she says.But neuronal defects were not reversed, even partially. “It might be because only a portion of the protein was put into the fish. Probably, that potion isn’t sufficient to compensate for the loss of the whole protein, ” she explains.“It’s proof-of-concept that just a piece of the protein is sufficient to reverse some defects, even if only partially, in zebrafish, ” Dr. Sachidanandan says.Alternatively, the researchers used two small molecules to reverse the defects. If the protein Ep300 is responsible for opening the DNA, there are other proteins that are responsible for closing the DNA.The two molecules were found from a screen of compounds well known for their ability to inhibit proteins responsible for closing the DNA.Like in the case when excess amount of Ep300 protein was introduced, both the molecules could partially restore facial defects but not the neuronal defects.“Introducing excess amount of a portion of the ep300 protein showed greater rescue of deformities than the small molecules, ” says Aswini Babu from IGIB and first author of the paper. “But rescuing the deformities using small molecules is a relatively easier and better option.”
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Calcium, vitamin D, and fracturesPOSTED FEBRUARY 12, 2018, 10:30 AM , UPDATED FEBRUARY 22, 2018. Monique Tello, MD, MPHMonique Tello, MD, MPHContributing EditorWhen I saw the headlines about this recently published study on bone health saying “Vitamin D and calcium supplements may not lower fracture risk.” I thought: Wait, that’s news? I think I remember seeing that headline a few years ago.Indeed, in 2015, this very blog reported on similar studies of calcium supplements, noting that calcium supplements have risks and side effects, and are not likely indicated for most healthy community-dwelling adults over 50. These folks are not in a high-risk category for vitamin deficiencies, osteoporosis, and fractures, and we usually advise them to get their calcium from food. Dietary sources of calcium are everywhere, including milk and yogurt, but also include green leafy veggies like collard greens, legumes like black-eyed peas, tofu, almonds, orange juice… the list goes on (and you can check it out here).What’s new with this most recent study?This research found that taking vitamin D supplements did not protect against fractures in people over 50. The authors examined 33 research studies including over 50, 000 people for their analysis. However, and it’s a big however, study investigators note several times that their research included only healthy people out in the community, and that their findings do not apply to elderly people living in nursing homes who may have a poorer diet, less sun exposure and mobility, and who are at particularly high risk for fractures. Indeed, the original recommendations for calcium supplementation were based on a study of elderly, nursing-home bound women with vitamin deficiencies and low bone density, for whom calcium and vitamin D supplements did significantly reduce fracture risk.What is the takeaway?Well, simply, not much has changed. My advice to my healthy patients is still to get calcium from foods, and the best diet for this is a Mediterranean-style diet rich in colorful plants, plenty of legumes, and fish. This plus high-protein, low-fat, and low-sugar dairy (yogurt is ideal) can supply plenty of calcium. As far as vitamin D, well, vitamin D supplementation continues to be a topic of lively and livid debate among everyone, including competing guideline-authoring endocrine experts (see my Harvard Health Blog post on this). I hesitate to wander into that minefield again. But here goes…The scoop on vitamin D deficiencyThere is a large group of people who are likely to be deficient in vitamin D. It includes people with eating disorders; people who have had gastric bypass surgeries; those with malabsorption syndromes like celiac sprue; pregnant and lactating women; people who have dark skin; and those who wear total skin covering (and thus absorb less sunlight). In addition, people with or at risk for low bone density (perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, people diagnosed with other skeletal disorders, or who take certain medications), should discuss whether they need supplements and to have blood levels of vitamin D monitored.Many New England-dwelling (and Northern hemisphere) residents are at risk for a dip in vitamin D levels during the long, dark winter months. In my own practice I do consider that a risk factor, and I advise a vitamin D supplement of 1, 000 IUs daily. For people who would rather avoid a supplement but may need a boost of vitamin D, it is also found in some common foods, including sardines, salmon, tuna, cheese, egg yolks, and vitamin-fortified milk. I will add that, for those who fall into the “healthy community-dwelling adult” category, a supplement of anywhere from 400 to 2, 000 IUs of vitamin D daily is not likely to cause harm. Yes, vitamin D toxicity is a thing, usually seen at levels above 80 ng/ml, which causes excessive calcium to be released into the bloodstream. This is rare, but I have seen it in patients who took high-dose vitamin D supplementation of 50, 000 IUs weekly over a long period of time.Other important and effective ways to protect your bonesThere are other methods that may be more effective at maintaining bone health and reducing fracture risk. One that we can likely all agree on is regular physical activity. Weight-bearing exercise like walking, jogging, tennis, and aerobics definitely strengthens bones. Core exercises like yoga and Pilates can improve balance. All of this can help reduce falls and fracture risk.And so, in the end, I am recommending what I always end up recommending: a Mediterranean-style diet rich in colorful plants, plenty of legumes, fish, plus low-sugar, low-fat dairy and plenty of varied physical activity throughout your entire life… and maybe calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation for certain people, following a discussion with their doctors.Harvard medical school
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HUMAN DEVELOPMENTHow to build a human brainSome steps for growing mini versions of human organs are easier than othersBY INGFEI CHEN 3:30PM, FEBRUARY 20, 2018SHARE ARTICLEorganoid brainBRAIN-MAKING 101 As blobs of two types of brainlike tissue fuse, interneurons (green) migrate from the left clump to the right, linking with neurons (not stained) in the right blob. On both sides, neural support cells called glia appear in purple.PAŞCA LAB/STANFORD UNIV.Magazine issue: Vol. 193, No. 4, March 3, 2018, p. 22SPONSOR MESSAGEIn a white lab coat and blue latex gloves, Neda Vishlaghi peers through a light microscope at six milky-white blobs. Each is about the size of a couscous grain, bathed in the pale orange broth of a petri dish. With tweezers in one hand and surgical scissors in the other, she deftly snips one tiny clump in half.When growing human brains, sometimes you need to do some pruning.The blobs are 8-week-old bits of brainlike tissue. While they wouldn’t be mistaken for Lilliputian-sized brains, some of their fine-grained features bear a remarkable resemblance to the human cerebral cortex, home to our memories, decision making and other high-level cognitive powers.Vishlaghi created these “minibrains” at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, where she’s a research assistant. First she immersed batches of human pluripotent stem cells — which can morph into any cell type in the body — in a special mix of chemicals.The free-floating cells multiplied and coalesced into itty-bitty balls of neural tissue. Nurtured with meticulously timed doses of growth-supporting ingredients, the cell clumps were eventually transferred to petri dishes of broth laced with Matrigel, a gelatin-like matrix of proteins.On day 56, the blobs display shadowy clusters of neural “rosettes.” Under a laser scanning microscope, razor-thin slices of those rosettes reveal loose-knit layers of a variety of dividing neural stem cells and the nerve cells, or neurons, they give rise to. The layered structures look similar to the architecture of a human fetal brain at 14 weeks of gestation.By eight weeks, brainlike clumps (top) show neural clusters called rosettes. Within one cluster (red box, expanded at bottom), stem cells (blue and teal) churn out layers of neural precursor cells (pink) and neurons (not stained).BOTH: M. WATANABE ET AL/CELL REPORTS 2017Across the globe, labs such as this one, led by UCLA developmental biologist and neuroscientist Bennett Novitch, are cultivating thousands of these brainy clumps for research. Less than five years ago, a team of biologists in Austria and the United Kingdom and one in Japan wowed the world when they announced they had made rudimentary bits of 3-D human cerebral cortex in a dish. Since then, researchers have been eagerly tinkering with techniques for producing these miniature brain models, like chefs obsessively refining their favorite recipes.“It’s like making a cake: You have many different ways in which you can do it, ” says Novitch, who prefers using the Japanese method with a few tweaks. “There are all sorts of little tricks that people have come up with to overcome some of the common challenges.”For instance, because the brain blobs lack a built-in blood supply, they must absorb enough oxygen and nutrients from the tissue-culture broth to remain healthy. To help, some labs circulate the broth around the tissue clumps. The UCLA researchers choose instead to grow theirs at higher oxygen levels and chop the blobs at the 35-day mark, when they are as wide as three millimeters, and then about every two weeks after. Sounds radical, but the slicing gives cells on the inside — some of which start dying — exposure to much-needed oxygen and nutrients. Those divided bits then continue growing separately. But cutting can be done only so many times before the expanding rosette structures inside are damaged.With all the experimenting, researchers have cooked up a lot of innovations, including some nifty progress reported in just the last year. Scientists have concocted tiny versions of several brain regions ranging from the hypothalamus, which regulates body temperature, thirst and hunger, to the movement-controlling basal ganglia. Electrical chatter among neurons, reflecting active brain circuits, has been detected. And research groups have recently begun linking bits of specific regions like Legos. Scientists have even observed some early developmental processes as they happen within the human brain blobs.Stem cell payoffThe work is part of a broader scientific bonanza that comes from coaxing human stem cells to self-assemble into balls of organlike tissue, known as organoids, that are usually no bigger than a lentil. Although the organoids don’t grow enough to replicate entire human organs, these mini-versions can mimic the 3-D cellular infrastructure of everything from our guts to our lungs. That’s something you can’t get from studies of rodents, which have different biology than humans do.Mini-organ models promise enormous advantages for understanding basic human biology, teasing apart human disease processes, and offering an accurate testing ground for finding or vetting drug therapies. And by creating personalized organoids from the reprogrammed cells of patients, scientists could study disease in a very individualized way — or maybe even use organoid structures to replace certain damaged tissues, such as in the liver or spinal cord.“Organoids offer an unprecedented level of access into the inner workings of the human brain, ” Novitch says, noting that our brains are largely off-limits to poking and cutting into for research. If scientists can study accurate models of working neural circuits in these brain bits, he and others say, researchers might finally get a handle on uniquely human neurological conditions. Such disorders, which include epilepsy and, experts theorize, schizophrenia and autism (SN Online: 7/17/15), can arise when the brain’s communication networks develop off-kilter.
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Medical Medium Have you or someone you love been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or psoriatic arthritis (PA)? Have you been told that the cause is a mystery or that it’s your body attacking itself? The truth is that there’s a real cause behind these illnesses that medical science and research are unaware of. Fortunately, this article and the accompanying radio show explore the information medical science has yet to fully understand or uncover. Once you know the real cause, you can begin to move forward with healing as you will be addressing the root issue. The Autoimmune TheoryMost people are told that their rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis are caused by an antibody that has been created within the body that attacks the joints. This is a misguided theory that not only has never been proven, but has also sadly become law within the medical community. When this antibody was discovered, science and research did not even know what it did, and they still don’t. This means that all of the treatments and prognoses that have been delivered since this theory was put in place have been precariously balancing on an antibody whose function is still a complete mystery, which makes the true cause of RA and PA just as enigmatic as it was when research on these illnesses first began. Additionally, since the current treatments and medications prescribed for patients are based on this erroneous theory, there are so many people who are still suffering from swelling, stiffness, and pain in the joints, as well as the other symptoms that are associated with these diseases.When people first began suffering from mystery illnesses in the 1950s, research and science was compelled to blame hormones. This is because, like so many other times in medical research, all the money was in hormones. There was such a deluge of research being conducted on hormones at the time that pharmaceutical companies were primed and ready to sell their new hormone drugs they had been itching to promote.However, one doctor was not convinced hormones were to blame, so he got funding for more research and dug further. He eventually stumbled upon an antibody, which, he thought, was the ticket. He created a theory that the antibody was the body’s inexplicable weapon against itself, even though the actual reason for the antibody was still completely unknown. This research was so heavily funded that it would have been unacceptable to emerge and explain that they have no idea what the antibody does. Therefore, some sort of conclusion was necessary, some theory that would stick. The reason researchers eventually concluded the body was attacking itself was because it protected the institution of modern medicine. In this theory, the patient is blamed above all else, which in turn prevents any fingers being pointed at medicine. Currently, most funding is going toward gene research, which always concludes that the patient’s genes are to blame and there is nothing to be done. In this theory, the patient is blamed above all else, which in turn prevents any fingers being pointed at medicine.The Truth about the AntibodyThis antibody that has become the false poster child for autoimmune diseases is actually just one of many antibodies that have yet to be discovered by science and research. The most ironic part about the events of the last half century is that everything medical research claims to be true about this antibody is actually the exact opposite. Rather than attacking the body, this antibody has been created by the body to protect itself from an outside intruder. The antibody, while an indicator of something being attacked, is not the one doing the attacking. It is proof of your body doing everything it can to support and safeguard you. It doesn’t go after tissue; it goes after the pathogen.The True Cause of RA and PAWe are currently living in a virus culture. Our world is rampant with pathogens that are causing the diseases so many are mystified by and calling autoimmune. Medical science and research are unaware that Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is the cause of so many illnesses, including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, thyroid disorders, lupus, Lyme disease, tinnitus, vertigo, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. There are over 60 varieties of EBV, which may come as a shock to anyone who is only nominally familiar with this virus as well as to those who work in the medical field.Psoriatic arthritis is created by EBV, which feeds on the heavy metal copper in the liver. Toxic varieties of copper are perfect food for the virus that creates PA. When there is an abundant amount of food that EBV likes, such as copper, the virus becomes stronger and more rampant in the body, attacking the joints and tissues. EBV then creates an internal dermatoxin, which is different to the known external dermatoxin, which then surfaces to the skin. This is when a rash, either of the psoriasis and/or eczema variety, occurs, as well as aches, pains, and inflammation, Thyroid Healing. Medical communities are not aware that this is the true cause of PA, or even that viruses feed on specific foods, metals, and toxins. This is one huge reason why people are not able to receive the answers and help they need to truly heal.Copper can be absorbed into the system in many ways. Someone could have lived in an old house with ancient pipes made of copper that turned everything green. Or they could have used copper pans that flaked the metal off into the food. Copper is rife in pesticides, which means living near farmland, even 50 miles away, can be conducive to toxic copper exposure. Copper is in all pesticides, rodenticides, herbicides, and fungicides, which means we should avoid spraying both inside and outside the house. Anytime you purchase new linens or fabrics, such as towels, sheets, clothing, underwear, or socks, it would be prudent to wash them twice before using. New linens and clothing are loaded with fungicides, which are full of copper that can seep into the skin, your largest organ. It’s important to note that this toxic heavy metal copper is different to the helpful trace mineral copper which is found in plants.Rheumatoid arthritis is also caused by Epstein-Barr Virus that’s in a late stage (read more about the stages of EBV in my book Thyroid Healing, ) except this variety of EBV either does not like to feed on copper as much, or there simply is not an excessive amount of toxic copper in the system. The particular variety of EBV that causes RA much prefers the heavy metal mercury as its food. This specific variety of EBV gets into connective tissue, joints, and ligaments in its fourth stage, causing inflammation that’s evidence of your body trying to hold the invader at bay. Swelling of the knuckles, cervical spine, and the like is an indication that the body is reacting to the virus burrowing deeper and causing permanent damage to nerves and tissue. In its milder forms, this may display itself as mystery aches and pains. In its advanced forms, people experience severe joint swelling and a diagnosis of RA. This information is unknown to medical science and research.The Very First StepThe most important step you can take today toward true healing is way beyond diet or avoiding sprays. You must first know in your heart the true cause of your disease. Your body is not attacking itself. It is the biggest mistake to believe your immune system is not supporting you. When you believe your disease is autoimmune, you are preventing true healing from taking place because you are not giving your body the support it needs as it continues the fight against the pathogen in your body. Knowing your body is not fighting itself but rather a pathogen such as a virus ignites your immune system to become stronger, more focused, and work even harder for you. Additionally, when you know you should be fighting a virus, you can learn the practical steps you can take to give your body as much support as you possibly can.How to HealUnknown to medical research and science, the antibody was created to fight Epstein-Barr Virus; however, your body still needs all the support it can get. The following are some steps to take that can help you to begin recovering from rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.Remove Heavy MetalsHeavy metals are one of EBV’s favorite foods. And almost all of us unknowingly have toxic heavy metals inside our bodies. These metals make it possible for the virus to continue growing and becoming more prolific. And the more it feeds on metals such as mercury and copper, the more toxic waste matter the virus excretes in the body, which leads to the symptoms of psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis. To get rid of heavy metals, heavy metal detox foods to include in your diet daily: barley grass juice, cilantro, spirulina, wild blueberries. Foods to AvoidWhen healing from RA and PA, it is essential to avoid eating things that happen to be some of EBV’s favorite foods, such as eggs and dairy. Also, it’s best to avoid pork because it burdens the liver to such a degree that it gives viruses an opportunity to proliferate, grow, and inflame the joints and skin. It’s also important to stay away from gluten as well because unknown to all medical communities it also provides fuel for the virus. If you have taken out eggs, dairy, and gluten, and you are still experiencing symptoms after several months, consider removing all grains from your diet, including oats and rice, while you heal. Some people tolerate grains well but for some, grains have to be removed to allow for deeper healing. It’s also helpful to avoid corn, soy, and canola oil.The Healing Food: FruitWhile many have been told to avoid fruit because of its sugar content, this trend is actually another example of misinformation that is only preventing people from taking advantage of the powerful antiviral properties in bananas, dates, apples, melons, mangoes, and all other kinds of fruit. Fruit is the most antioxidant-rich food in the world. Antioxidant should really be synonymous with longevity, as fruit is the best food to prolong life and fight disease. Wild blueberries, blackberries, and cherries are among the most antioxidant-filled foods. You can focus on whichever fruits are most attractive to you. If you have the luxury of a farmers market near you, make it a weekly habit to do your shopping there and explore the numerous varieties of fruit that are available to you: apples, pears, peaches, persimmons, apricots, watermelons, and dates. Different kinds of citrus are also a wonderful addition to your fruit-filled diet. While some people may think oranges, lemon water, or grapefruit cause flare ups in their RA or PA, it only feels that way because the citrus is detoxifying the poisons and viral byproduct in your system. In addition to fruit, be sure to eat plenty of leafy greens, vegetables, and include celery juice daily.Helpful SupplementsFor healing supplements, consider including the following supplements:Zinc sulfate is one of the most important resources to fight EBV. The body uses up supplies and even deep reserves of zinc at a rapid rate—meaning that it’s very common to become zinc-deficient when you have EBV, if you weren’t already. This supplement gives a major boost to the immune system so that EBV cells can be destroyed and suppressed.L-Lysine inhibits and reduces an EBV viral load and acts as an anti-inflammatory to the entire body.Cat's claw is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-viral that can be very helpful for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.Taking a methylfolate supplement that supports methylation issues is very important for those suffering with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.Bringing in the right B-12 supplement that contains adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin can be a wonderful addition as well.Glutathione helps to detoxify the liver, which is where the virus and toxins that cause these conditions can be found.Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) repairs and fortifies areas of the body that have been damaged by the virus.Mullein leaf’s strong anti-viral abilities make it an important supplement to consider.Additional TherapiesMany people with RA go to an infrared sauna to help with the fatigue and stiffness. This can be a good option for you, just be sure not to have the heat set too high Be conscious about how long you stay in the sauna. Another extremely helpful treatment is gentle massage therapy, one of the oldest modalities since the beginning of time. Healing touch from one person to another can be incredible for RA.Moving ForwardRheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis are not autoimmune diseases, and this myth is one that needs to rectified immediately so that the millions of people who are suffering can begin to get true answers. When you are given wrong information about your illness, you are essentially given a stop sign. My hope is for you to walk away from this understanding of RA or PA with a renewed hope and green light. Realizing that your body is fighting a virus that is feeding on toxins and metals in your system is the first and most powerful thing you can do. You must let go of the idea that your body is working against you. It is impossible for the body to attack a single cell in our bodies.When you are considering your healing options, it can be overwhelming. Remember to take it slow and at your own pace. Everyone’s path is going to look a little different. Maybe the foods to avoid will take you some time to remove but the supplements will come more easily. Maybe eating fruit will be an easy step but including celery juice is too much for you up front. Do what you can today and keep building on it from here. Never forget that your body is working with you, not against you, and healing is possible.
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3 simple ways to get more restful sleepEven people without insomnia can have trouble getting a good night's rest. Many things can interfere with restorative sleep — crazy work schedules, anxiety, trouble putting down the smartphone, even what you eat and drink.The following three simple steps can help you sleepWhen you wake up in the morning, are you refreshed and ready to go, or groggy and grumpy? For many people, the second scenario is all too common. Improving Sleep: A guide to a good night's rest describes the latest in sleep research, including information about the numerous health conditions and medications that can interfere with normal sleep, as well as prescription and over-the-counter medications used to treat sleep disorders. Most importantly, you’ll learn what you can do to get the sleep you need for optimal health, safety, and well-being.1. Cut down on caffeineCaffeine drinkers may find it harder to fall asleep than people who don't drink caffeine. Once they drift off, their sleep is shorter and lighter. For some, a single cup of coffee in the morning means a sleepless night. That may be because caffeine blocks the effects of adenosine, a neurotransmitter thought to promote sleep. Caffeine can also interrupt sleep by increasing the need to urinate during the night.People who suffer from insomnia should avoid caffeine as much as possible, since its effects can endure for many hours. Because caffeine withdrawal can cause headaches, irritability, and extreme fatigue, it may be easier to cut back gradually rather than to go cold turkey. Those who can't or don't want to give up caffeine should avoid it after 2 p.m., or noon if they are especially caffeine-sensitive.2. Stop smoking or chewing tobaccoNicotine is a central nervous system stimulant that can cause insomnia. This potent drug makes it harder to fall asleep because it speeds your heart rate, raises blood pressure, and stimulates fast brainwave activity that indicates wakefulness. In people addicted to nicotine, a few hours without it is enough to induce withdrawal symptoms; the craving can even wake a smoker at night. People who kick the habit fall asleep more quickly and wake less often during the night. Sleep disturbance and daytime fatigue may occur during the initial withdrawal from nicotine, but even during this period, many former users report improvements in sleep. If you continue to use tobacco, avoid smoking or chewing it for at least one to two hours before bedtime.3. Limit alcohol intakeAlcohol depresses the nervous system, so a nightcap may seem to help some people fall asleep. However, alcohol suppresses REM sleep, and the soporific effects disappear after a few hours. Drinkers have frequent awakenings and sometimes frightening dreams. Alcohol may be responsible for up to 10% of chronic insomnia cases. Also, alcohol can worsen snoring and other sleep breathing problems, sometimes to a dangerous extent. Even one drink can make a sleep-deprived person drowsy. In an automobile, the combination significantly increases a person's chance of having an accident.You can also improve the amount and quality of your sleep by getting regular physical activity and creating and sticking to a regular sleep schedule and routine.Many people find that crossing several time zones makes their internal clocks go haywire. In addition to experiencing headaches, stomach upset, and difficulty concentrating, they may also suffer from fitful sleep.But there's no need to waste time riding out the effects of jet lag. Try these jet lag remedies the next time you travel.When you're traveling shorter distancesIf your destination is just one or two time zones away, it may be possible to wake up, eat, and sleep on your regular home schedule. At your destination, schedule appointments and activities for times when you would be alert at home.When you're traveling longer distancesGradually switch before the trip. For several days before you leave, move mealtimes and bedtime incrementally closer to the schedule of your destination. Even a partial switch may help.During the flight, drink plenty of fluids, but not caffeine or alcohol. Caffeine and alcohol promote dehydration, which worsens the symptoms of jet lag. They can also disturb sleep.Switch your bedtime as rapidly as possible upon arrival. Don't turn in until it's bedtime in the new time zone.Use the sun to help you readjust. If you need to wake up earlier in the new setting (you've flown west to east), get out in the early morning sun. If you need to wake up later (you've flown east to west), expose yourself to late afternoon sunlight.If you're traveling on short notice or you're facing an especially stubborn case of jet lag, ask your doctor about a specially timed dose of melatonin or ramelteon, which can help shift your circadian rhythms. If all else fails, a short course of an over-the-counter or prescription sleep aid may do the trick.
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Have You Been Diagnosed With An Autoimmune Disease? Medical medium If you or someone you love have been diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, chances are you’ve been told that your body is attacking itself. Hearing this probably stripped you of hope that you can heal and left you feeling betrayed by your own body. Today there are countless mysterious diseases that have been labeled as autoimmune conditions. But the problem is that the concept of autoimmunity is inherently flawed and this mistaken theory only hurts you and your loved ones in the end. Surprised? When we believe our own bodies are attacking themselves, we are unknowingly hindering our healing process. Our immune systems can weaken in the absence of this truth: Your body never attacks itself. It’s always working for you and loves you unconditionally. It’s never been more critical for you and your loved ones to know and feel this truth in your heart. It will greatly support you and those you care about to heal. Continue reading to learn more and check out the accompanying radio show to further immerse yourself in truth.When medical science and research do not know what is causing symptoms, such as mysterious rashes, mysterious dizziness, mysterious fatigue, mysterious aches and pains, or mysterious inflammation, it gets labeled as an autoimmune issue. This is a mere theory that was initiated in the 1950s and has since been grandfathered in to modern medicine and collectively agreed upon as law. There was a discovery of an antibody but no one had any idea of what it was or what it was for. There were theories and ideas of what it was, but they were just that: theories. One of those theories was that the antibody was there to destroy healthy cells. This theory came about because researchers didn’t have an answer as to what was causing chronic illnesses and symptoms or even an answer to what the antibody was for. Instead the blame was put on those with chronic illness and our bodies became the scapegoat. Better to blame it on our bodies than to blame it on the medical industry and research and science not having the answers. The theory of autoimmune conditions and diseases became a catch-all explanation for dozens of conditions and symptoms that medical communities don’t yet have answers for. When someone is diagnosed with Hashimoto’s, they are told their body is creating antibodies that are destroying their thyroid tissue. With eczema and psoriasis, you will likely be told your body is attacking your skin. If you have lupus, you will likely be told your body is attacking itself and that’s what creates all the inflammation. This same theory is used for countless other chronic illnesses. This is the best explanation that modern medicine has to offer about mysterious diseases today. It’s never been more important for you to know this isn’t accurate because it affects your ability to heal. Not only are you given incorrect information about your health problems, you’re also told your body has turned against you when nothing could be further from the truth. The information I am sharing with you here is meant to free you of the misguided notion that your body would ever attack itself and to reveal the true cause of mysterious diseases that have been labeled autoimmune disorders.The True Causes of Autoimmune DiseasesIf you have an illness that has been labeled as an autoimmune disease, your body truly is attacking something, but it is not attacking itself. As I said, your body is working for you every single day. It works tirelessly for you and is doing the very best it can. When you are sick and have mysterious symptoms, such as fatigue, butterfly rashes, dizziness, tremors, vertigo, aches and pains, digestive trouble, weight loss, insomnia, weight gain, memory loss, numbness, tingling, blood sugar issues, brain fog, mood swings, night sweats, loss of appetite, and many others, it means there is an invader in your body. The same is true if you have lupus, Hashimoto’s, Grave’s, Addison’s, Type 1 Diabetes, colitis, vitiligo, celiac, eczema, Graves’, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, parkinson’s, alopecia, or any other disease that is considered to be in the autoimmune category. There is a pathogen invader in your body that it’s working hard to attack and get rid of.Modern medicine has yet to come to this conclusion about mysterious illnesses due to a few reasons. First of all, this theory about the body attacking itself has become law inside the minds of well-intentioned doctors and health professionals who are just doing their best to provide care for their patients. No one is willing to question it because they have come to believe it is the truth, even though there is no evidence backing it.Another reason is because there is no incentive to look into these mysterious diseases. When there is already an acceptable answer that seems to fit, there doesn’t appear to be a need to spend more money on research that they assume will get them nowhere. And finally, even if doctors were to seriously look for these pathogens in their patients coming into their offices with a long list of mysterious symptoms, they would come up dry. Most tests the blood lab offers cannot detect the viruses and bacteria that are invading so many people and causing so many conditions and symptoms. Many of the pathogens causing autoimmune labeled illnesses are yet to be discovered and classified; therefore, it would be quite impossible to detect. You can’t find something when you do not know what you are looking for. For example, medical communities believe there is only one Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)—the virus that causes mono—but in truth there are 61 strains of EBV that cause all kinds of different symptoms and illnesses. I revealed this truth in my book Medical Medium. You can read more about EBV and how it creates illnesses, including cancer, in my book Thyroid Healing.If the medical industry was willing to put more money into researching pathogens, it would be more likely that answers would be coming out in literature today. Viruses and bacteria would be called by name and accurate tests would be created and administered. However, the most popular answer medicine has at the moment is that the body is attacking itself and as I have shared, this is not the truth. The second most popular answer is that it’s your faulty genes causing disease, which is a theory that’s quickly on the rise and still not the answer. In fact, people are told their body is attacking itself and that their genes are the problem.The First Barrier to DestroyThe biggest barrier obstructing your path to true healing is this belief that the body is attacking itself. It may have been ingrained into you not only by your medical practitioners, but also by what you read on the Internet. You are told there is very little you can do to manage your symptom or condition, and nothing you can do to reverse it. This is a lie and something that should be discarded immediately not that you know the truth.Know this: Your body is not attacking itself. I have already said it multiple times in this article, but I must say it over and over until we all understand it deep within our beings. It’s that fundamentally important. Your body is not self-destructive. And your body is not searching out healthy blood cells to harm and kill off. In fact, your body is doing the opposite. Every day your body is working for you. It is on your side. Your immune system cannot do one thing to harm a single cell in your body. It has never been able to do that, and it never will do that. When we know this deep within our being and replace the lie with this truth, something begins to change. That barrier that was once in your way is obliterated, and your path to healing becomes clear and unhampered. It may seem like a small switch, but it is in fact very significant. When your mind is aware that it is a pathogen you are going after, a revelation clicks into place and your body begins to work even more efficiently to kill off that virus. Your immune system fires up and kicks into gear to work for you even harder. This is essential to understand. The power of knowing the truth cannot be underestimated, especially when it comes to healing from these diseases that have plagued so many people for so many years. If you know your body is working for you, it works for you even more. Recovery is finally possible when you are armed with real information that is not hiding behind funding agendas and the bureaucracy of the medical world. This simple understanding sends a message to your body to start breaking down the pathogen fast. And when you start robbing food from the pathogen, which I discuss in the section about healing foods, recovery is even faster. Triggers vs. CauseThere are many medical professionals these days that are offering advice on how to manage your autoimmune disease. Some of this advice discusses “triggers” related to your illness but ironically it’s not even the correct triggers. For example, some experts are just beginning to say that EBV is a trigger for thyroid disease. This is because the never before known information that I have released has forced experts to look at EBV as a possible concern, but this has only led these experts to say that EBV could be a trigger. But in fact, EBV is not a trigger, it is the direct cause. This is a critical distinction that must be understood.The reason we need to make a distinction between trigger and cause is because when we just manage our illness by avoiding triggers, we are not actively fighting the pathogen and addressing the root cause. And if today’s medical professionals and experts believe that EBV is possibly just a trigger but have no idea how to rid the EBV out of the body, then they’re not helping people to heal. We want to do everything we can to kill off the virus invading our body. When we simply just avoid triggers, for example gluten, the virus that’s really behind your suffering can cause further issues. And obviously, we want to do everything we can to ensure the pathogen does not proliferate and cause more symptoms again. Plus, not all triggers can be avoided. We all eventually lose a loved one for example, and the grief we experience can trigger illness if the cause hasn’t been addressed. Or we’re not choosing the right triggers we can avoid. When we recognize the true cause of our illness, we can start to move toward true and total recovery, which is something I’ve witnessed tens of thousands of people doing over the years with the information I’ve shared, and now many more.Let’s take a look at some of the illness labeled as autoimmune diseases and conditions.LupusMedical science and research are unaware that lupus is a viral condition, specifically it is the body reacting to Epstein-Barr’s byproducts and neurotoxins. Medical science and research are completely unaware of this true cause. In fact, lupus is not even diagnosable. It is only visibly diagnosed by inflammation markers. I share more about the undiscovered true cause of lupus in Thyroid Healing.Multiple Sclerosis (MS)With this autoimmune labeled condition, EBV is in the body feeding on high levels of toxic heavy metals. It is not always lesions on the brain that are causing MS symptoms. Many people have spots that show up on brain scans, and they do not have any of the symptoms related to MS. There is so much that is going on in people’s brains: calcifications, crystallizations, dark spots, white spots, heavy metal deposits, MSG deposits, and chemical solvent stains. This does not mean someone has MS. What is actually causing the MS is EBV in addition to the heavy metals—a truth that medical communities are unaware of.Hashimoto's ThyroiditisEBV is also the true cause of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. The thyroid becomes inflamed because the virus has infected it. Your immune system is not going haywire or out to get you. It’s this virus that’s causing the damage and making you feel miserable. Your body just needs the proper support, which I describe in Thyroid Healing, to triumph over the virus.CeliacCeliac is not a genetic disease. It is inflammation in the intestinal lining from streptococcus bacteria. Medical communities believe that celiac is an autoimmune condition and that it’s limited to a sensitivity to gluten. Rather, wheat gluten is one trigger to this inflammation of the intestinal tract by feeding the strep bacteria in there.Type 1 DiabetesType 1 diabetes occurs when there is an injury to your pancreas. If you have type 1 diabetes, at one point some of your pancreatic tissue was injured from a viral condition or toxic bacteria. Your body is not attacking your pancreas.Grave's DiseaseIn Grave’s disease, a mutated variety of EBV is causing inflammation, which is scarring the thyroid. There are specific unknown varieties of EBV that prompt the thyroid gland to produce more tissue and, as a result, more thyroid hormones. Find out more about Grave’s in Thyroid Healing.Hepatitis A, B, C, DAll versions of hepatitis are viral conditions from the herpetic family, mainly the Epstein-Barr Virus. They are at different stages of what the virus is doing to the liver. Autoimmune hepatitis is a mistake all on its own because medical research doesn’t actually know the true cause of these conditions. They merely see inflammation and antibodies and make the conclusion that the antibodies are going after the liver. However, the immune system is creating these antibodies to help you go after the virus.Mysterious Skin RashingMany varieties of mysterious skin rashing is from the shingles virus. Specifically, eczema and psoriasis can be a combination of EBV and shingles, both in the liver, feeding off of high levels of copper and DDT. The reason mysterious skin rashing does not get diagnosed as shingles is because when something does not look like textbook shingles, they would never think to call it that. However, what modern medicine is unaware of is that there are over 31 varieties of the shingles virus that they have yet to discover. Therefore, it would be impossible to diagnose it as such without further research. Ehler's-Danlos SyndromeEhlers-Danlos syndrome is another example of an illness that has been labeled as autoimmune simply because medical professionals are unaware of the true cause. The truth is that this condition is caused by a virus that’s injuring connective tissue; it’s not genetic.FibromyalgiaThe aches, pains, tenderness, fatigue, and stiffness of fibromyalgia are a result of EBV’s neurotoxins creating chronic inflammation of both the central nervous system and nerves throughout the body. Knowing the true cause means that you can begin to implement the steps needed to allow for healing. You can find out more about fibromyalgia and many other autoimmune diseases and condition in Thyroid Healing.Viruses EatNow that you know that your body is not attacking itself, but rather that it is attacking a pathogen in your body, you can move onto the next step toward healing. The next thing that’s important for you to know is a truth about viruses that science has yet to discover: viruses eat. Modern medicine is still oblivious to the fact that viruses must eat in order to grow and proliferate. Without their favorite foods, viruses will die. Therefore, logically we must know which are their favorite foods and eliminate them from your diet so the virus can exit your system, leaving you free of your symptoms over time.As an example, eczema is due to a virus in the liver. And that virus feeds off certain foods, which then creates an internal dermatoxin that leaches out from the liver, goes into the bloodstream, and then surfaces through the skin. When you know this is the real cause, you can take away the foods the virus likes best.In my book Thyroid Healing I explain in depth how the Epstein-Barr virus feeds, what it feeds on, and how it excretes when it feeds. For example, EBV feeds on toxic heavy metals, as well as all pesticides, including old ones such as DDT stored in the liver, and certain foods we eat. In the book, I explain the entire process of this particular virus as it feeds, excretes, develops, and continues to feed.Viruses Love Heavy MetalsViruses love to feed off of heavy metals, such as mercury, arsenic, cadmium, lead, nickel, alloys, steel, aluminum, and copper, that are in our systems, including in our liver. Heavy metals are not the cause of your autoimmune labeled disease. They simply feed the viruses that are the cause. The good news is you can take active steps to eliminate these metals from your body by eating the five heavy metal detox foods I recommend every day within a 24-hour period. These foods are wild blueberries, Hawaiian spirulina, barley grass juice extract powder, cilantro, and Atlantic dulse. All five of these foods work together to slowly eliminate the heavy metals. Find out how you can incorporate these foods in Thyroid Healing.Many people believe chlorella is actually better for you than spirulina, but chlorella simply does not eliminate heavy metals the way spirulina does. Chlorella drops the metals instantly, while spirulina holds onto them and in tandem with the other key foods, effectively aids in the process of removing them from the body.Foods that Viruses LoveEggs may be considered the perfect food in some circles, but in reality, they are the perfect food for viruses. They essentially incubate viruses, making them stronger and more aggressive. Stay away from eggs if you have a disease that is labeled as autoimmune, especially lupus and PCOS. Unknown to medical communities, eggs are disastrous for those who have ovarian issues. Eggs feed every single virus and bacteria that create conditions that are thought to be autoimmune diseases.Even if you are eating cage-free, natural eggs, these still act as food for pathogens. Viruses look for egg material in the body to feed on. They feed on the natural hormones that are in eggs, which act as a steroid for the virus. It does not matter what kind of eggs you get because unfortunately all eggs feed viruses.In a very similar way, all dairy products feed viruses. Some doctors are knowledgeable about the allergy concern of eating dairy, but we have to recognize that simply eliminating dairy is not enough. We need to understand why we are eliminating it. It’s critical to stop eating foods like dairy and eggs if you have any symptoms or a chronic illness so that they do not continue to feed the pathogens that are causing your symptoms. It is also a good idea to stay away from all corn products and canola oil. These are in almost every packaged food out there, even organic ones, so be mindful of what is in the ingredients list. If it is intimidating to you to avoid these ingredients that seem minor, think of it this way. The more fresh fruits and vegetables you include in our diet, the more apples, sweet potatoes, salads, bananas, and squash, the less room you have in diet for processed foods that likely contain ingredients you are trying to avoid. Think of crowding out your plate with so much good stuff that the packaged foods simply do not have as much space. Also, the more fresh fruits and vegetables you eat, the more you crave them. Keeping this in mind will help you increase your whole foods intake because you know that the more you do it, the easier it will get. It’s also helpful to reduce animal protein while you’re healing because, again, we need room for the fruits, leafy greens, and vegetables, the secrets weapons, as I like to call them. If you like to eat animal protein, try not to eat it three times a day. Instead eat it once a day and find other filling options to enjoy. Instead of chicken on your salad, add black beans, avocado, sweet potato, or hummus. Instead of bacon with your toast, bake potato fries with lots of herbs of spices. And when you do eat animal proteins, choose the cleanest meats possible. Wild fish is one of the better choices. When healing from chronic illnesses and symptoms, it’s helpful to minimize added fats in the diet to allow the liver to cleanse and toxins and viruses to be most effectively purged from the body. One easy way to cut down fats is to stay away from or minimize oils, even olive oil and coconut oil. A small drizzle here or there is fine, but do not overdo the oils. The same goes for other fat sources like nuts for example. Eat just a few with lots of fresh veggies versus having a large portion of nuts.Foods that Fight PathogensThere are so many amazing powerhouse foods that you can eat in order to give your body an extra boost when fighting off pathogens. The first group we can focus on is cruciferous vegetables. There is a misconception circulating around that cruciferous vegetables, also called brassicas, are harmful because of the goitrogenic compounds in them. We are being told to stay away from kale, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussels sprouts, but this is a misguided and unproductive trend. These foods are actually incredible for anyone with an illness that has been labeled as an autoimmune disease, including thyroid conditions. Cruciferous vegetables cannot harm you. They contain phytochemicals that actually fight the bug you are trying to get rid of. These foods can be some of your greatest allies in your path to healing, and it would be wise to include them, both raw and cooked, on a daily basis.Straight cucumber juice is something that can be included daily in order to flush out toxins from the body. Straight celery juice is also important to include because its mineral salts clean up the liver, build up hydrochloric acid, and strengthen bile so you can break down bacteria and viruses in the intestinal tract that cause conditions like colitis, celiac, and crohn's disease. I share recipes for these foods and juices in my book Thyroid Healing.Include plenty of squash in your diet. There are so many delicious varieties to enjoy, such as butternut, kabocha, spaghetti, and acorn. Also, remember to eat lots of fresh herbs like cilantro, rosemary, and thyme. Eat plenty of salads with red leaf lettuce, butter lettuce, arugula, parsley, and radishes. Radishes are a miracle food when fighting off pathogens. Radish greens kill off viruses, and the radishes themselves push poisons out of the body and support the thyroid.Eating plenty of fruit is one of the best ways you can support your healing. If you are afraid of fruit, know that fruit cannot feed candida and fruit sugar isn’t bad for you. It’s the opposite—fruit is the most healing food on earth! So eat plenty of apples, bananas, oranges, and berries. Melons are wonderful for flushing out poisons that the virus creates. Bring in more tropical fruits like papaya, pineapple, and passionfruit if you are able to find them. Eat the fruits that are in season like pears and persimmons in the fall and peaches and plums in the summer. Fruit is an amazing antiviral food that is essential to include when you are fighting a pathogen such as Epstein-Barr virus that is causing your mystery illness. Bananas in particular are great for killing off pathogens in the intestinal tract. If you fear fruit, check out my chapter on Fruit Fear in my book Medical Medium.Another power food that is worth seeking out is dandelion greens. These are often sold at farmers markets and health food stores among other greens like kale and collard greens. Dandelion greens are particularly supportive for the liver because they work to push out poisons that are created from a virus or bacteria. There are so many wonderful herbal teas to include, as well. Nettle leaf and lemon balm are two particularly powerful ones that fight viruses. There is a phytochemical in lemon balm that helps you go after the virus you want to kill. Many people know that nettle leaf tea is anti-inflammatory, but they do not know why. The reason is because it’s killing the pathogens that are creating the inflammation in the first place. When you are drinking your herbal teas with this knowledge, the properties become that much more powerful.In the same way, people are aware that turmeric is anti-inflammatory, but they do not know why. Turmeric has phytochemicals that are poisonous to the bugs that are inflaming people’s joints and backs. This herb is attacking viruses and bacteria.SupplementsIncorporating supplements is critical to fighting off the viruses that are causing your autoimmune disease. As I always recommend, talk to your medical practitioner before you begin taking supplements so you can work together to find the right dosages. Bring your doctor this information and work together to fight the virus with these powerful herbs and supplements. Be sure to get the right supplements. I have a list of preferred supplements that you can find on my website. ZincZinc deficiencies are rampant and can trigger an autoimmune condition. Simply taking zinc can be a huge step toward healing and can be critical for anyone suffering from the symptoms associated with autoimmune diseases. When you take zinc sulfate, it goes directly to where the virus is and starts working on stopping it in its tracks. Additionally, zinc increases your immune system’s ability to fight. B12 with adenosylcobalamin & methylcobalaminMany people are recommending B12 today, which is good. However, there is still very little talk about the right kind of B12. When fighting a viral condition, it is essential to use a combination of both adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Including a methylfolate supplement along with this specific B12 is especially helpful. Vitamin CWhen fighting a viral condition, it’s important to include some vitamin c supplements, particularly the liposomal c. The Liposomal c I recommend on my preferred supplements page does not contain any corn, which feeds viruses, unlike other brands. Ester C is also very helpful.
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Harvard Health LetterBuild a better bladderExercises, lifestyle change, medications, and procedures can alleviate incontinence and give you your life back.Published: February, 2016A leaky bladder or a sudden urge to go to the bathroom is uncomfortable andembarrassing. But you can take steps to alleviate the problem. "Some people tell me they would have sought treatment sooner if they'd known it was this simple, " says Dr. Anurag Das, director of the Center for Neurourology and Continence at Harvard-affiliated Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.Lifestyle changesOne of the first lines of defense is pill-free and costs nothing: lifestyle change. For urge incontinence (see "Types of incontinence"), you can try timed voiding (urinating on a schedule) and bladder guarding, which teaches you to cope with triggers that set off the urge to go, such as washing dishes or hearing water. "You squeeze your muscles to hold in urine before a trigger, which sends a message to the brain that this is not the time to go, " says Dr. Das. Other lifestyle changes include watching fluid intake; quitting smoking, to reduce coughing and pressure on the bladder; and minimizing bladder irritants such as caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drinks.Pelvic floor rehabThe pelvic floor muscles aid control of your bladder and bowels. Strengthening these muscles can be helpful to people with stress incontinence (see "Types of incontinence") as well as those with urge incontinence. This is done with Kegel exercises, which involve squeezing and releasing the muscles you use to hold in urine. A physical therapist can help you learn how to do the exercises properly. "The majority of people with urge incontinence will improve with rehab. It may not make it 100% better, but even 75% may be acceptable to many people, " says Dr. Das.MedicationsWhen pill-free measures aren't enough to curb incontinence, medications may help. The most commonly prescribed drugs for urge incontinence are anticholinergics, such as oxybutynin (Ditropan). Side effects can include dry mouth and eyes, headache, constipation, and confusion.Some drugs relieve stress incontinence, such as tricyclics like imipramine (Tofranil) and alpha-adrenergic agonists like pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), which are often found in cold medicines. However, these, too, are limited by side effects, and their effect declines over time. When an enlarged prostate causes overflow incontinence (see "Types of incontinence"), alpha blockers such as doxazosin (Cardura) may help by relaxing the smooth muscle of the prostate. It may take trial and error to find the best drugs with the fewest side effects.ProceduresInjections of botulinum toxin (Botox), a muscle relaxant, are used to treat urge incontinence. "The downside is a higher incidence of urine retention and risk of bladder infection. Some patients won't be able to urinate and may need to use a catheter, " says Dr. Das. Injections of calcium hydroxylapatite (Coaptite) are used to treat stress incontinence by tightening the urethra.A procedure called sacral neuromodulation can help people with urge incontinence. A small device called Interstim is implanted in the lower back to stimulate the sacral nerve, improving both bladder and bowel problems.Surgery sometimes is used for stress incontinence. This involves creating a sling that wraps around a person's urethra. "You don't have to use artificial mesh materials for the sling; you can use the patient's own fascia (muscle lining) if preferred, " says Dr. Das. There is no surgery for overflow incontinence if the bladder muscle does not work. However, in cases of blockage from the prostate, prostate surgery may help.Types of incontinenceStress incontinence occurs mostly in women, and it's often the result of a weakened or stretched pelvic floor from childbirth. The telltale symptom is leakage with pressure or stress on the bladder, such as when laughing or coughing. Stress incontinence is less common in men unless they've had an injury or had their prostate removed.Urge incontinence (overactive bladder) is characterized by an inability to get to the bathroom in time. It's caused by overactive contractions of the bladder muscle that may be related to an enlarged prostate in men; changes to the bladder lining or bladder muscle in postmenopausal women; or a chronic neurological condition, such as multiple sclerosis.Overflow incontinence occurs when there's no room for additional urine because the bladder is not emptying, either because it is blocked or because it isn't working properly because of a neurological disorder or a medication side effect. Overflow incontinence primarily affects men with enlarged prostates. Symptoms include frequent leakage or a feeling of lower-belly fullness. The condition increases the risk for bladder infections because the urine pools in the bladder for long periods of time
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Decoding the chemistry of fearSalk team charts pathway for fear in worms to reveal more about human anxietyLA JOLLA—Ask a dozen people about their greatest fears, and you’ll likely get a dozen different responses. That, along with the complexity of the human brain, makes fear—and its close cousin, anxiety—difficult to study. For this reason, clinical anti-anxiety medicines have mixed results, even though they are broadly prescribed. In fact, one in six Americans takes a psychiatric drug.A team of investigators from the Salk Institute uncovered new clues about the mechanisms of fear and anxiety through an unlikely creature: the tiny nematode worm. By analyzing the responses of worms exposed to chemicals secreted by its natural predator and studying the underlying molecular pathways, the team uncovered a rudimentary fear-like response that has parallels to human anxiety. Such insights may eventually help refine prescriptions for current anti-anxiety drugs and enable the development of new drugs to treat conditions like PTSD and panic disorder.In this illustration, a C. elegans worm (lower right) exposed to sulfolipid chemicals from one of its natural predators, a worm called P. pacificus, quickly reverses direction in a response analogous to human fear.“For the past 30 or 40 years, scientists have used simpler animals to figure out how fear might work in humans, ” says Sreekanth Chalasani, associate professor in Salk’s Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory and senior author of the paper, published in Nature Communications on March 19, 2018. “The idea has been that if you could figure out which underlying signals in the brain are related to fear and anxiety, you could develop better drugs to block them.”The team at Salk started with a simple creature, the microscopic worm called Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans, which contains only 302 neurons, has a natural predator—another worm called Pristionchus pacificus, which bites and kills C. elegans. The researchers discovered that by exposing C. elegans to chemicals that are excreted by P. pacificus, they could elicit a fear-like response. When it encounters these predator-excreted chemicals, C. elegans rapidly reverses direction and crawls away.They found that this fear-inducing chemical, a new class of molecules called sulfolipids, could activate four redundant brain circuits that led to this behavior. Additionally, C. elegans continued to change its behavior even after the fear-chemical was removed. This is analogous to behavior in mice, who express fear when exposed to the scent of cat urine, even if a cat is nowhere nearby.“For years, we thought that only advanced brains like those of mammals would have this complex reaction, ” Chalasani says. “But our study is showing that a simple animal expresses something very much like fear.”In the experiment, coauthor and UC San Diego graduate student Amy Pribadi soaked C. elegans in a solution containing the sulfolipid for 30 minutes. The worms failed to lay eggs, even for an hour after they had been removed from the solution—an indicator of acute stress as well as a longer-term response akin to anxiety. Further research showed that the signaling pathways activated during the worms’ response are similar to the pathways activated when more complex animals experience fear.When the worms were soaked in a solution containing Zoloft (a human anti-anxiety drug), however, these fear- and anxiety-like responses were not observed. This suggested that at least some of the pathways that the drug acts on to eliminate anxiety in mammals have been preserved by evolution.Also intriguingly, the team found that Zoloft acted on the worms’ GABA signaling in a neuron that affects the animal’s sleep. Whether this is also the case in humans is not yet known, but points to a potential pathway to understand why Zoloft works in some people and not others. The research eventually could lead to a change in how these drugs are prescribed.“We hope the findings from this paper will contribute to the field by providing a broader picture of some of these signaling activities, ” Chalasani says. “Our findings suggest that fear and anxiety are ancient and evolved much earlier than we originally thought. The pathways, nerves, circuits and genes that we’ll now be able to study in the worm should inform us about this process in humans.”In addition, he says, understanding which chemicals may repel nematodes could have implications for developing new kinds of pesticides, potentially ones that are even nontoxic. “C. elegans is not a pathogen, but many other types of nematodes can do severe damage to crops, ” he explains. “Biology research can go in many different directions, and you never know what you’re going to uncover.”The paper’s other authors were Zheng Liu, Maro J. Kariya, Christopher D. Chute, Sarah G. Leinwand, Ada Tong, and Kevin P. Curran of Salk; Neelanjan Bose and Frank C. Schroeder of Cornell University; and Jagan Srinivasan of Worcester Polytechnic Institute.This work was funded by the W. M. Keck Foundation, the National Institutes of Health and a Salk Alumni Fellowship.PUBLICATION INFORMATION JOURNALNature CommunicationsTITLEPredator-secreted sulfolipids induce defensive responses in C. elegansAUTHORSZheng Liu, Maro J. Kariya, Christopher D. Chute, Amy K. Pribadi, Sarah G. Leinwand, Ada Tong, Kevin P. Curran, Neelanjan Bose, Frank C. Schroeder, Jagan Srinivasan and Sreekanth H. Chalasani
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Gene identified that helps wound healingNew research on gene that regulates healing and may control scarringDate:March 2, 2016Source:Biophysical SocietySummary:Researchers have pinpointed a human gene product that helps regulate wound healing and may control scarring in people recovering from severe injuries and damage to certain internal organs. The protein, MG53, travels throughout the bloodstream and helps the body fix injuries to the skin, heart, and other organs without causing scars. It's a discovery that could help heal open wounds, decrease recovery time after surgery and reduce the spread of infections.Researchers at Ohio State University have pinpointed a human gene product that helps to regulate wound healing and may control scarring in people recovering from severe injuries and damage to certain internal organs.The protein, MG53, travels throughout the bloodstream and helps the body fix injuries to the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys and other organs without causing scars. It's a discovery that could help heal open wounds, decrease recovery time after surgery and reduce the spread of infections."A massive scar on your skin may look bad, but imagine you have a heart attack and get a scar on your heart--that could be lethal, " says Jianjie Ma, a physiologist at Ohio State and co-author of the presentation.All animals carry this gene, he said, and it's almost identical no matter which species. MG53 fixes the cell and tissue damage that occurs during everyday living. Even simple actions, like walking or typing, will cause injuries to the body. Usually this isn't a problem because MG53 can make repairs before there's any serious harm.Ma and his team genetically engineered mice without the gene that makes MG53 to see what would happen without its healing capabilities. The experiments showed that the mice lacking MG53 had difficulty recovering from injury, because of their compromised repair capacity; their heart would not function well under stress conditions.MG53 works in tandem with another protein called TGF Beta, a type of "cytokine" protein that also heals wounds, but the healing process happens so quickly that it causes scars. If you have more TGF Beta in your bloodstream than MG53, you scar easily.Ma's goal is to develop a therapy that will inhibit TGF Beta and promote MG53. Medical professionals can use the therapy during procedures to promote quick, scarless healing. His next step is to identify a small compound that can do this and eventually test whether it has the desired effect in human trials.Presentation #2907, "MG53 promotes wound healing and reduces scar formation by facilitating cell membrane repair and controlling myofibroblast differentiation, " is authored by Haichang Li, Pu Duann, Pei-Hui Lin, Li Zhao, Zhaobo Fan, Tao Tan, Xinyu Zhou, Mingzhai Sun, Matthew Sermersheim, Hanley Ma, Steven Steinberg, Hua Zhu, Chunyu Zeng, Jianjun Guan and Jianjie Ma. It will be in a poster session that begins at 10:30 a.m. on Wed., March 2, 2016 in the West Hall of the Los Angeles Convention Center.Story Source:Materials provided by Biophysical Society. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.Biophysical Society. "Gene identified that helps wound healing: New research on gene that regulates healing and may control scarring." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 March 2016. .
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