http://WWW.BCGRC.IN
http://WWW.BCGRC.IN

Checking delivery availability...

background-sm
Search
3

Updates found with 'create yeast'

Page  1 1

Updates found with 'create yeast'

In the future we won’t edit genomes—we’ll just print out new onesWhy redesigning the humble yeast could kick off the next industrial revolution.by Bryan Walsh February 16, 2018At least since thirsty Sumerians began brewing beer thousands of years ago, Homo sapiens has had a tight relationship with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the unicellular fungus better known as brewer’s yeast. Through fermentation, humans were able to harness a microscopic species for our own ends. These days yeast cells produce ethanol and insulin and are the workhorse of science labs.That doesn’t mean S. cerevisiae can’t be further improved—at least not if Jef Boeke has his way. The director of the Institute for Systems Genetics at New York University’s Langone Health, Boeke is leading an international team of hundreds dedicated to synthesizing the 12.5 million genetic letters that make up a yeast’s cells genome.In practice, that means gradually replacing each yeast chromosome—there are 16 of them—with DNA fabricated on stove-size chemical synthesizers. As they go, Boeke and collaborators at nearly a dozen institutions are streamlining the yeast genome and putting in back doors to let researchers shuffle its genes at will. In the end, the synthetic yeast—called Sc2.0—will be fully customizable.“Over the next 10 years synthetic biology is going to be producing all kinds of compounds and materials with microorganisms, ” says Boeke. “We hope that our yeast is going to play a big role in that.”Think of the project as something like Henry Ford’s first automobile—hand built and, for now, one of a kind. One day, though, we may routinely design genomes on computer screens. Instead of engineering or even editing the DNA of an organism, it could become easier to just print out a fresh copy. Imagine designer algae that make fuel; disease-proof organs; even extinct species resurrected.Jef Boeke leads an effort to create yeast with a man-made genome.“I think this could be bigger than the space revolution or the computer revolution, ” says George Church, a genome scientist at Harvard Medical School.Researchers have previously synthesized the genetic instructions that operate viruses and bacteria. But yeast cells are eukaryotic—meaning they confine their genomes in a nucleus and bundle them in chromosomes, just as humans do. Their genomes are also much bigger.That’s a problem because synthesizing DNA is still nowhere near as cheap as reading it. A human genome can now be sequenced for $1, 000, with the cost still falling. By comparison, to replace every DNA letter in yeast, Boeke will have to buy $1.25 million worth of it. Add labor and computer power, and the total cost of the project, already under way for a decade, is considerably more.Along with Church, among others, Boeke is a leader of GP-write, an organization advocating for international research to reduce the cost of designing, engineering, and testing genomes by a factor of a thousand over the next decade. “We have all kinds of challenges facing ourselves as a species on this planet, and biology could have a huge impact on them, ” he says. “But only if we can drive down costs.”Bottom upA scientist named Ronald Davis at Stanford first suggested the possibility of synthesizing the yeast genome at a conference in 2004—though initially, Boeke didn’t see the point. “Why would anyone want to do this?” he recalls thinking.But Boeke came around to the idea that manufacturing a yeast genome might be the best way to comprehend the organism. By replacing each part, you might learn which genes are necessary and which the organism can live without. Some team members call the idea “build to understand.”“It’s a different take on trying to understand how living things work, ” says Leslie Mitchell, a postdoctoral fellow in the NYU lab and one of the main designers of the synthetic yeast. “We learn what gaps in our knowledge exist in a bottom-up genetic approach.”Joel Bader, a computer scientist at Johns Hopkins, signed on to develop software that let scientists see the yeast chromosomes on a screen and keep track of versions as they changed, like a Google Docs for biology. And in 2008, to make the DNA, Boeke launched an undergraduate course at Hopkins called “Build a Genome.” Students would learn basic molecular biology as each one assembled a continuous stretch of 10, 000 DNA letters that would go toward the synthetic-yeast project. Later, several institutions in China joined to share the workload, along with collaborators in Britain, Australia, and Japan.“We assign chromosomes to individual teams, like assigning a chapter of a book, and they have the freedom to decide how to do it, as long as it’s based 100 percent on what we design, ” says Patrick Cai, a synthetic biologist at the University of Manchester and the yeast project’s international coordinator.Next stepsIt took Boeke and his team eight years before they were able to publish their first fully artificial yeast chromosome. The project has since accelerated. Last March, the next five synthetic yeast chromosomes were described in a suite of papers in Science, and Boeke says that all 16 chromosomes are now at least 80 percent done. These efforts represent the largest amount of genetic material ever synthesized and then joined together.It helps that the yeast genome has proved remarkably resilient to the team’s visions and revisions. “Probably the biggest headline here is that you can torture the genome in a multitude of different ways, and the yeast just laughs, ” says Boeke.
Send Enquiry
Read More
Medical Medium Have you or someone you love been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or psoriatic arthritis (PA)? Have you been told that the cause is a mystery or that it’s your body attacking itself? The truth is that there’s a real cause behind these illnesses that medical science and research are unaware of. Fortunately, this article and the accompanying radio show explore the information medical science has yet to fully understand or uncover. Once you know the real cause, you can begin to move forward with healing as you will be addressing the root issue. The Autoimmune TheoryMost people are told that their rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis are caused by an antibody that has been created within the body that attacks the joints. This is a misguided theory that not only has never been proven, but has also sadly become law within the medical community. When this antibody was discovered, science and research did not even know what it did, and they still don’t. This means that all of the treatments and prognoses that have been delivered since this theory was put in place have been precariously balancing on an antibody whose function is still a complete mystery, which makes the true cause of RA and PA just as enigmatic as it was when research on these illnesses first began. Additionally, since the current treatments and medications prescribed for patients are based on this erroneous theory, there are so many people who are still suffering from swelling, stiffness, and pain in the joints, as well as the other symptoms that are associated with these diseases.When people first began suffering from mystery illnesses in the 1950s, research and science was compelled to blame hormones. This is because, like so many other times in medical research, all the money was in hormones. There was such a deluge of research being conducted on hormones at the time that pharmaceutical companies were primed and ready to sell their new hormone drugs they had been itching to promote.However, one doctor was not convinced hormones were to blame, so he got funding for more research and dug further. He eventually stumbled upon an antibody, which, he thought, was the ticket. He created a theory that the antibody was the body’s inexplicable weapon against itself, even though the actual reason for the antibody was still completely unknown. This research was so heavily funded that it would have been unacceptable to emerge and explain that they have no idea what the antibody does. Therefore, some sort of conclusion was necessary, some theory that would stick. The reason researchers eventually concluded the body was attacking itself was because it protected the institution of modern medicine. In this theory, the patient is blamed above all else, which in turn prevents any fingers being pointed at medicine. Currently, most funding is going toward gene research, which always concludes that the patient’s genes are to blame and there is nothing to be done. In this theory, the patient is blamed above all else, which in turn prevents any fingers being pointed at medicine.The Truth about the AntibodyThis antibody that has become the false poster child for autoimmune diseases is actually just one of many antibodies that have yet to be discovered by science and research. The most ironic part about the events of the last half century is that everything medical research claims to be true about this antibody is actually the exact opposite. Rather than attacking the body, this antibody has been created by the body to protect itself from an outside intruder. The antibody, while an indicator of something being attacked, is not the one doing the attacking. It is proof of your body doing everything it can to support and safeguard you. It doesn’t go after tissue; it goes after the pathogen.The True Cause of RA and PAWe are currently living in a virus culture. Our world is rampant with pathogens that are causing the diseases so many are mystified by and calling autoimmune. Medical science and research are unaware that Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is the cause of so many illnesses, including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, thyroid disorders, lupus, Lyme disease, tinnitus, vertigo, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. There are over 60 varieties of EBV, which may come as a shock to anyone who is only nominally familiar with this virus as well as to those who work in the medical field.Psoriatic arthritis is created by EBV, which feeds on the heavy metal copper in the liver. Toxic varieties of copper are perfect food for the virus that creates PA. When there is an abundant amount of food that EBV likes, such as copper, the virus becomes stronger and more rampant in the body, attacking the joints and tissues. EBV then creates an internal dermatoxin, which is different to the known external dermatoxin, which then surfaces to the skin. This is when a rash, either of the psoriasis and/or eczema variety, occurs, as well as aches, pains, and inflammation, Thyroid Healing. Medical communities are not aware that this is the true cause of PA, or even that viruses feed on specific foods, metals, and toxins. This is one huge reason why people are not able to receive the answers and help they need to truly heal.Copper can be absorbed into the system in many ways. Someone could have lived in an old house with ancient pipes made of copper that turned everything green. Or they could have used copper pans that flaked the metal off into the food. Copper is rife in pesticides, which means living near farmland, even 50 miles away, can be conducive to toxic copper exposure. Copper is in all pesticides, rodenticides, herbicides, and fungicides, which means we should avoid spraying both inside and outside the house. Anytime you purchase new linens or fabrics, such as towels, sheets, clothing, underwear, or socks, it would be prudent to wash them twice before using. New linens and clothing are loaded with fungicides, which are full of copper that can seep into the skin, your largest organ. It’s important to note that this toxic heavy metal copper is different to the helpful trace mineral copper which is found in plants.Rheumatoid arthritis is also caused by Epstein-Barr Virus that’s in a late stage (read more about the stages of EBV in my book Thyroid Healing, ) except this variety of EBV either does not like to feed on copper as much, or there simply is not an excessive amount of toxic copper in the system. The particular variety of EBV that causes RA much prefers the heavy metal mercury as its food. This specific variety of EBV gets into connective tissue, joints, and ligaments in its fourth stage, causing inflammation that’s evidence of your body trying to hold the invader at bay. Swelling of the knuckles, cervical spine, and the like is an indication that the body is reacting to the virus burrowing deeper and causing permanent damage to nerves and tissue. In its milder forms, this may display itself as mystery aches and pains. In its advanced forms, people experience severe joint swelling and a diagnosis of RA. This information is unknown to medical science and research.The Very First StepThe most important step you can take today toward true healing is way beyond diet or avoiding sprays. You must first know in your heart the true cause of your disease. Your body is not attacking itself. It is the biggest mistake to believe your immune system is not supporting you. When you believe your disease is autoimmune, you are preventing true healing from taking place because you are not giving your body the support it needs as it continues the fight against the pathogen in your body. Knowing your body is not fighting itself but rather a pathogen such as a virus ignites your immune system to become stronger, more focused, and work even harder for you. Additionally, when you know you should be fighting a virus, you can learn the practical steps you can take to give your body as much support as you possibly can.How to HealUnknown to medical research and science, the antibody was created to fight Epstein-Barr Virus; however, your body still needs all the support it can get. The following are some steps to take that can help you to begin recovering from rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.Remove Heavy MetalsHeavy metals are one of EBV’s favorite foods. And almost all of us unknowingly have toxic heavy metals inside our bodies. These metals make it possible for the virus to continue growing and becoming more prolific. And the more it feeds on metals such as mercury and copper, the more toxic waste matter the virus excretes in the body, which leads to the symptoms of psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis. To get rid of heavy metals, heavy metal detox foods to include in your diet daily: barley grass juice, cilantro, spirulina, wild blueberries. Foods to AvoidWhen healing from RA and PA, it is essential to avoid eating things that happen to be some of EBV’s favorite foods, such as eggs and dairy. Also, it’s best to avoid pork because it burdens the liver to such a degree that it gives viruses an opportunity to proliferate, grow, and inflame the joints and skin. It’s also important to stay away from gluten as well because unknown to all medical communities it also provides fuel for the virus. If you have taken out eggs, dairy, and gluten, and you are still experiencing symptoms after several months, consider removing all grains from your diet, including oats and rice, while you heal. Some people tolerate grains well but for some, grains have to be removed to allow for deeper healing. It’s also helpful to avoid corn, soy, and canola oil.The Healing Food: FruitWhile many have been told to avoid fruit because of its sugar content, this trend is actually another example of misinformation that is only preventing people from taking advantage of the powerful antiviral properties in bananas, dates, apples, melons, mangoes, and all other kinds of fruit. Fruit is the most antioxidant-rich food in the world. Antioxidant should really be synonymous with longevity, as fruit is the best food to prolong life and fight disease. Wild blueberries, blackberries, and cherries are among the most antioxidant-filled foods. You can focus on whichever fruits are most attractive to you. If you have the luxury of a farmers market near you, make it a weekly habit to do your shopping there and explore the numerous varieties of fruit that are available to you: apples, pears, peaches, persimmons, apricots, watermelons, and dates. Different kinds of citrus are also a wonderful addition to your fruit-filled diet. While some people may think oranges, lemon water, or grapefruit cause flare ups in their RA or PA, it only feels that way because the citrus is detoxifying the poisons and viral byproduct in your system. In addition to fruit, be sure to eat plenty of leafy greens, vegetables, and include celery juice daily.Helpful SupplementsFor healing supplements, consider including the following supplements:Zinc sulfate is one of the most important resources to fight EBV. The body uses up supplies and even deep reserves of zinc at a rapid rate—meaning that it’s very common to become zinc-deficient when you have EBV, if you weren’t already. This supplement gives a major boost to the immune system so that EBV cells can be destroyed and suppressed.L-Lysine inhibits and reduces an EBV viral load and acts as an anti-inflammatory to the entire body.Cat's claw is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-viral that can be very helpful for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.Taking a methylfolate supplement that supports methylation issues is very important for those suffering with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.Bringing in the right B-12 supplement that contains adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin can be a wonderful addition as well.Glutathione helps to detoxify the liver, which is where the virus and toxins that cause these conditions can be found.Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) repairs and fortifies areas of the body that have been damaged by the virus.Mullein leaf’s strong anti-viral abilities make it an important supplement to consider.Additional TherapiesMany people with RA go to an infrared sauna to help with the fatigue and stiffness. This can be a good option for you, just be sure not to have the heat set too high Be conscious about how long you stay in the sauna. Another extremely helpful treatment is gentle massage therapy, one of the oldest modalities since the beginning of time. Healing touch from one person to another can be incredible for RA.Moving ForwardRheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis are not autoimmune diseases, and this myth is one that needs to rectified immediately so that the millions of people who are suffering can begin to get true answers. When you are given wrong information about your illness, you are essentially given a stop sign. My hope is for you to walk away from this understanding of RA or PA with a renewed hope and green light. Realizing that your body is fighting a virus that is feeding on toxins and metals in your system is the first and most powerful thing you can do. You must let go of the idea that your body is working against you. It is impossible for the body to attack a single cell in our bodies.When you are considering your healing options, it can be overwhelming. Remember to take it slow and at your own pace. Everyone’s path is going to look a little different. Maybe the foods to avoid will take you some time to remove but the supplements will come more easily. Maybe eating fruit will be an easy step but including celery juice is too much for you up front. Do what you can today and keep building on it from here. Never forget that your body is working with you, not against you, and healing is possible.
Send Enquiry
Read More
Have You Been Diagnosed With An Autoimmune Disease? Medical medium If you or someone you love have been diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, chances are you’ve been told that your body is attacking itself. Hearing this probably stripped you of hope that you can heal and left you feeling betrayed by your own body. Today there are countless mysterious diseases that have been labeled as autoimmune conditions. But the problem is that the concept of autoimmunity is inherently flawed and this mistaken theory only hurts you and your loved ones in the end. Surprised? When we believe our own bodies are attacking themselves, we are unknowingly hindering our healing process. Our immune systems can weaken in the absence of this truth: Your body never attacks itself. It’s always working for you and loves you unconditionally. It’s never been more critical for you and your loved ones to know and feel this truth in your heart. It will greatly support you and those you care about to heal. Continue reading to learn more and check out the accompanying radio show to further immerse yourself in truth.When medical science and research do not know what is causing symptoms, such as mysterious rashes, mysterious dizziness, mysterious fatigue, mysterious aches and pains, or mysterious inflammation, it gets labeled as an autoimmune issue. This is a mere theory that was initiated in the 1950s and has since been grandfathered in to modern medicine and collectively agreed upon as law. There was a discovery of an antibody but no one had any idea of what it was or what it was for. There were theories and ideas of what it was, but they were just that: theories. One of those theories was that the antibody was there to destroy healthy cells. This theory came about because researchers didn’t have an answer as to what was causing chronic illnesses and symptoms or even an answer to what the antibody was for. Instead the blame was put on those with chronic illness and our bodies became the scapegoat. Better to blame it on our bodies than to blame it on the medical industry and research and science not having the answers. The theory of autoimmune conditions and diseases became a catch-all explanation for dozens of conditions and symptoms that medical communities don’t yet have answers for. When someone is diagnosed with Hashimoto’s, they are told their body is creating antibodies that are destroying their thyroid tissue. With eczema and psoriasis, you will likely be told your body is attacking your skin. If you have lupus, you will likely be told your body is attacking itself and that’s what creates all the inflammation. This same theory is used for countless other chronic illnesses. This is the best explanation that modern medicine has to offer about mysterious diseases today. It’s never been more important for you to know this isn’t accurate because it affects your ability to heal. Not only are you given incorrect information about your health problems, you’re also told your body has turned against you when nothing could be further from the truth. The information I am sharing with you here is meant to free you of the misguided notion that your body would ever attack itself and to reveal the true cause of mysterious diseases that have been labeled autoimmune disorders.The True Causes of Autoimmune DiseasesIf you have an illness that has been labeled as an autoimmune disease, your body truly is attacking something, but it is not attacking itself. As I said, your body is working for you every single day. It works tirelessly for you and is doing the very best it can. When you are sick and have mysterious symptoms, such as fatigue, butterfly rashes, dizziness, tremors, vertigo, aches and pains, digestive trouble, weight loss, insomnia, weight gain, memory loss, numbness, tingling, blood sugar issues, brain fog, mood swings, night sweats, loss of appetite, and many others, it means there is an invader in your body. The same is true if you have lupus, Hashimoto’s, Grave’s, Addison’s, Type 1 Diabetes, colitis, vitiligo, celiac, eczema, Graves’, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, parkinson’s, alopecia, or any other disease that is considered to be in the autoimmune category. There is a pathogen invader in your body that it’s working hard to attack and get rid of.Modern medicine has yet to come to this conclusion about mysterious illnesses due to a few reasons. First of all, this theory about the body attacking itself has become law inside the minds of well-intentioned doctors and health professionals who are just doing their best to provide care for their patients. No one is willing to question it because they have come to believe it is the truth, even though there is no evidence backing it.Another reason is because there is no incentive to look into these mysterious diseases. When there is already an acceptable answer that seems to fit, there doesn’t appear to be a need to spend more money on research that they assume will get them nowhere. And finally, even if doctors were to seriously look for these pathogens in their patients coming into their offices with a long list of mysterious symptoms, they would come up dry. Most tests the blood lab offers cannot detect the viruses and bacteria that are invading so many people and causing so many conditions and symptoms. Many of the pathogens causing autoimmune labeled illnesses are yet to be discovered and classified; therefore, it would be quite impossible to detect. You can’t find something when you do not know what you are looking for. For example, medical communities believe there is only one Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)—the virus that causes mono—but in truth there are 61 strains of EBV that cause all kinds of different symptoms and illnesses. I revealed this truth in my book Medical Medium. You can read more about EBV and how it creates illnesses, including cancer, in my book Thyroid Healing.If the medical industry was willing to put more money into researching pathogens, it would be more likely that answers would be coming out in literature today. Viruses and bacteria would be called by name and accurate tests would be created and administered. However, the most popular answer medicine has at the moment is that the body is attacking itself and as I have shared, this is not the truth. The second most popular answer is that it’s your faulty genes causing disease, which is a theory that’s quickly on the rise and still not the answer. In fact, people are told their body is attacking itself and that their genes are the problem.The First Barrier to DestroyThe biggest barrier obstructing your path to true healing is this belief that the body is attacking itself. It may have been ingrained into you not only by your medical practitioners, but also by what you read on the Internet. You are told there is very little you can do to manage your symptom or condition, and nothing you can do to reverse it. This is a lie and something that should be discarded immediately not that you know the truth.Know this: Your body is not attacking itself. I have already said it multiple times in this article, but I must say it over and over until we all understand it deep within our beings. It’s that fundamentally important. Your body is not self-destructive. And your body is not searching out healthy blood cells to harm and kill off. In fact, your body is doing the opposite. Every day your body is working for you. It is on your side. Your immune system cannot do one thing to harm a single cell in your body. It has never been able to do that, and it never will do that. When we know this deep within our being and replace the lie with this truth, something begins to change. That barrier that was once in your way is obliterated, and your path to healing becomes clear and unhampered. It may seem like a small switch, but it is in fact very significant. When your mind is aware that it is a pathogen you are going after, a revelation clicks into place and your body begins to work even more efficiently to kill off that virus. Your immune system fires up and kicks into gear to work for you even harder. This is essential to understand. The power of knowing the truth cannot be underestimated, especially when it comes to healing from these diseases that have plagued so many people for so many years. If you know your body is working for you, it works for you even more. Recovery is finally possible when you are armed with real information that is not hiding behind funding agendas and the bureaucracy of the medical world. This simple understanding sends a message to your body to start breaking down the pathogen fast. And when you start robbing food from the pathogen, which I discuss in the section about healing foods, recovery is even faster. Triggers vs. CauseThere are many medical professionals these days that are offering advice on how to manage your autoimmune disease. Some of this advice discusses “triggers” related to your illness but ironically it’s not even the correct triggers. For example, some experts are just beginning to say that EBV is a trigger for thyroid disease. This is because the never before known information that I have released has forced experts to look at EBV as a possible concern, but this has only led these experts to say that EBV could be a trigger. But in fact, EBV is not a trigger, it is the direct cause. This is a critical distinction that must be understood.The reason we need to make a distinction between trigger and cause is because when we just manage our illness by avoiding triggers, we are not actively fighting the pathogen and addressing the root cause. And if today’s medical professionals and experts believe that EBV is possibly just a trigger but have no idea how to rid the EBV out of the body, then they’re not helping people to heal. We want to do everything we can to kill off the virus invading our body. When we simply just avoid triggers, for example gluten, the virus that’s really behind your suffering can cause further issues. And obviously, we want to do everything we can to ensure the pathogen does not proliferate and cause more symptoms again. Plus, not all triggers can be avoided. We all eventually lose a loved one for example, and the grief we experience can trigger illness if the cause hasn’t been addressed. Or we’re not choosing the right triggers we can avoid. When we recognize the true cause of our illness, we can start to move toward true and total recovery, which is something I’ve witnessed tens of thousands of people doing over the years with the information I’ve shared, and now many more.Let’s take a look at some of the illness labeled as autoimmune diseases and conditions.LupusMedical science and research are unaware that lupus is a viral condition, specifically it is the body reacting to Epstein-Barr’s byproducts and neurotoxins. Medical science and research are completely unaware of this true cause. In fact, lupus is not even diagnosable. It is only visibly diagnosed by inflammation markers. I share more about the undiscovered true cause of lupus in Thyroid Healing.Multiple Sclerosis (MS)With this autoimmune labeled condition, EBV is in the body feeding on high levels of toxic heavy metals. It is not always lesions on the brain that are causing MS symptoms. Many people have spots that show up on brain scans, and they do not have any of the symptoms related to MS. There is so much that is going on in people’s brains: calcifications, crystallizations, dark spots, white spots, heavy metal deposits, MSG deposits, and chemical solvent stains. This does not mean someone has MS. What is actually causing the MS is EBV in addition to the heavy metals—a truth that medical communities are unaware of.Hashimoto's ThyroiditisEBV is also the true cause of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. The thyroid becomes inflamed because the virus has infected it. Your immune system is not going haywire or out to get you. It’s this virus that’s causing the damage and making you feel miserable. Your body just needs the proper support, which I describe in Thyroid Healing, to triumph over the virus.CeliacCeliac is not a genetic disease. It is inflammation in the intestinal lining from streptococcus bacteria. Medical communities believe that celiac is an autoimmune condition and that it’s limited to a sensitivity to gluten. Rather, wheat gluten is one trigger to this inflammation of the intestinal tract by feeding the strep bacteria in there.Type 1 DiabetesType 1 diabetes occurs when there is an injury to your pancreas. If you have type 1 diabetes, at one point some of your pancreatic tissue was injured from a viral condition or toxic bacteria. Your body is not attacking your pancreas.Grave's DiseaseIn Grave’s disease, a mutated variety of EBV is causing inflammation, which is scarring the thyroid. There are specific unknown varieties of EBV that prompt the thyroid gland to produce more tissue and, as a result, more thyroid hormones. Find out more about Grave’s in Thyroid Healing.Hepatitis A, B, C, DAll versions of hepatitis are viral conditions from the herpetic family, mainly the Epstein-Barr Virus. They are at different stages of what the virus is doing to the liver. Autoimmune hepatitis is a mistake all on its own because medical research doesn’t actually know the true cause of these conditions. They merely see inflammation and antibodies and make the conclusion that the antibodies are going after the liver. However, the immune system is creating these antibodies to help you go after the virus.Mysterious Skin RashingMany varieties of mysterious skin rashing is from the shingles virus. Specifically, eczema and psoriasis can be a combination of EBV and shingles, both in the liver, feeding off of high levels of copper and DDT. The reason mysterious skin rashing does not get diagnosed as shingles is because when something does not look like textbook shingles, they would never think to call it that. However, what modern medicine is unaware of is that there are over 31 varieties of the shingles virus that they have yet to discover. Therefore, it would be impossible to diagnose it as such without further research. Ehler's-Danlos SyndromeEhlers-Danlos syndrome is another example of an illness that has been labeled as autoimmune simply because medical professionals are unaware of the true cause. The truth is that this condition is caused by a virus that’s injuring connective tissue; it’s not genetic.FibromyalgiaThe aches, pains, tenderness, fatigue, and stiffness of fibromyalgia are a result of EBV’s neurotoxins creating chronic inflammation of both the central nervous system and nerves throughout the body. Knowing the true cause means that you can begin to implement the steps needed to allow for healing. You can find out more about fibromyalgia and many other autoimmune diseases and condition in Thyroid Healing.Viruses EatNow that you know that your body is not attacking itself, but rather that it is attacking a pathogen in your body, you can move onto the next step toward healing. The next thing that’s important for you to know is a truth about viruses that science has yet to discover: viruses eat. Modern medicine is still oblivious to the fact that viruses must eat in order to grow and proliferate. Without their favorite foods, viruses will die. Therefore, logically we must know which are their favorite foods and eliminate them from your diet so the virus can exit your system, leaving you free of your symptoms over time.As an example, eczema is due to a virus in the liver. And that virus feeds off certain foods, which then creates an internal dermatoxin that leaches out from the liver, goes into the bloodstream, and then surfaces through the skin. When you know this is the real cause, you can take away the foods the virus likes best.In my book Thyroid Healing I explain in depth how the Epstein-Barr virus feeds, what it feeds on, and how it excretes when it feeds. For example, EBV feeds on toxic heavy metals, as well as all pesticides, including old ones such as DDT stored in the liver, and certain foods we eat. In the book, I explain the entire process of this particular virus as it feeds, excretes, develops, and continues to feed.Viruses Love Heavy MetalsViruses love to feed off of heavy metals, such as mercury, arsenic, cadmium, lead, nickel, alloys, steel, aluminum, and copper, that are in our systems, including in our liver. Heavy metals are not the cause of your autoimmune labeled disease. They simply feed the viruses that are the cause. The good news is you can take active steps to eliminate these metals from your body by eating the five heavy metal detox foods I recommend every day within a 24-hour period. These foods are wild blueberries, Hawaiian spirulina, barley grass juice extract powder, cilantro, and Atlantic dulse. All five of these foods work together to slowly eliminate the heavy metals. Find out how you can incorporate these foods in Thyroid Healing.Many people believe chlorella is actually better for you than spirulina, but chlorella simply does not eliminate heavy metals the way spirulina does. Chlorella drops the metals instantly, while spirulina holds onto them and in tandem with the other key foods, effectively aids in the process of removing them from the body.Foods that Viruses LoveEggs may be considered the perfect food in some circles, but in reality, they are the perfect food for viruses. They essentially incubate viruses, making them stronger and more aggressive. Stay away from eggs if you have a disease that is labeled as autoimmune, especially lupus and PCOS. Unknown to medical communities, eggs are disastrous for those who have ovarian issues. Eggs feed every single virus and bacteria that create conditions that are thought to be autoimmune diseases.Even if you are eating cage-free, natural eggs, these still act as food for pathogens. Viruses look for egg material in the body to feed on. They feed on the natural hormones that are in eggs, which act as a steroid for the virus. It does not matter what kind of eggs you get because unfortunately all eggs feed viruses.In a very similar way, all dairy products feed viruses. Some doctors are knowledgeable about the allergy concern of eating dairy, but we have to recognize that simply eliminating dairy is not enough. We need to understand why we are eliminating it. It’s critical to stop eating foods like dairy and eggs if you have any symptoms or a chronic illness so that they do not continue to feed the pathogens that are causing your symptoms. It is also a good idea to stay away from all corn products and canola oil. These are in almost every packaged food out there, even organic ones, so be mindful of what is in the ingredients list. If it is intimidating to you to avoid these ingredients that seem minor, think of it this way. The more fresh fruits and vegetables you include in our diet, the more apples, sweet potatoes, salads, bananas, and squash, the less room you have in diet for processed foods that likely contain ingredients you are trying to avoid. Think of crowding out your plate with so much good stuff that the packaged foods simply do not have as much space. Also, the more fresh fruits and vegetables you eat, the more you crave them. Keeping this in mind will help you increase your whole foods intake because you know that the more you do it, the easier it will get. It’s also helpful to reduce animal protein while you’re healing because, again, we need room for the fruits, leafy greens, and vegetables, the secrets weapons, as I like to call them. If you like to eat animal protein, try not to eat it three times a day. Instead eat it once a day and find other filling options to enjoy. Instead of chicken on your salad, add black beans, avocado, sweet potato, or hummus. Instead of bacon with your toast, bake potato fries with lots of herbs of spices. And when you do eat animal proteins, choose the cleanest meats possible. Wild fish is one of the better choices. When healing from chronic illnesses and symptoms, it’s helpful to minimize added fats in the diet to allow the liver to cleanse and toxins and viruses to be most effectively purged from the body. One easy way to cut down fats is to stay away from or minimize oils, even olive oil and coconut oil. A small drizzle here or there is fine, but do not overdo the oils. The same goes for other fat sources like nuts for example. Eat just a few with lots of fresh veggies versus having a large portion of nuts.Foods that Fight PathogensThere are so many amazing powerhouse foods that you can eat in order to give your body an extra boost when fighting off pathogens. The first group we can focus on is cruciferous vegetables. There is a misconception circulating around that cruciferous vegetables, also called brassicas, are harmful because of the goitrogenic compounds in them. We are being told to stay away from kale, broccoli, cauliflower, and brussels sprouts, but this is a misguided and unproductive trend. These foods are actually incredible for anyone with an illness that has been labeled as an autoimmune disease, including thyroid conditions. Cruciferous vegetables cannot harm you. They contain phytochemicals that actually fight the bug you are trying to get rid of. These foods can be some of your greatest allies in your path to healing, and it would be wise to include them, both raw and cooked, on a daily basis.Straight cucumber juice is something that can be included daily in order to flush out toxins from the body. Straight celery juice is also important to include because its mineral salts clean up the liver, build up hydrochloric acid, and strengthen bile so you can break down bacteria and viruses in the intestinal tract that cause conditions like colitis, celiac, and crohn's disease. I share recipes for these foods and juices in my book Thyroid Healing.Include plenty of squash in your diet. There are so many delicious varieties to enjoy, such as butternut, kabocha, spaghetti, and acorn. Also, remember to eat lots of fresh herbs like cilantro, rosemary, and thyme. Eat plenty of salads with red leaf lettuce, butter lettuce, arugula, parsley, and radishes. Radishes are a miracle food when fighting off pathogens. Radish greens kill off viruses, and the radishes themselves push poisons out of the body and support the thyroid.Eating plenty of fruit is one of the best ways you can support your healing. If you are afraid of fruit, know that fruit cannot feed candida and fruit sugar isn’t bad for you. It’s the opposite—fruit is the most healing food on earth! So eat plenty of apples, bananas, oranges, and berries. Melons are wonderful for flushing out poisons that the virus creates. Bring in more tropical fruits like papaya, pineapple, and passionfruit if you are able to find them. Eat the fruits that are in season like pears and persimmons in the fall and peaches and plums in the summer. Fruit is an amazing antiviral food that is essential to include when you are fighting a pathogen such as Epstein-Barr virus that is causing your mystery illness. Bananas in particular are great for killing off pathogens in the intestinal tract. If you fear fruit, check out my chapter on Fruit Fear in my book Medical Medium.Another power food that is worth seeking out is dandelion greens. These are often sold at farmers markets and health food stores among other greens like kale and collard greens. Dandelion greens are particularly supportive for the liver because they work to push out poisons that are created from a virus or bacteria. There are so many wonderful herbal teas to include, as well. Nettle leaf and lemon balm are two particularly powerful ones that fight viruses. There is a phytochemical in lemon balm that helps you go after the virus you want to kill. Many people know that nettle leaf tea is anti-inflammatory, but they do not know why. The reason is because it’s killing the pathogens that are creating the inflammation in the first place. When you are drinking your herbal teas with this knowledge, the properties become that much more powerful.In the same way, people are aware that turmeric is anti-inflammatory, but they do not know why. Turmeric has phytochemicals that are poisonous to the bugs that are inflaming people’s joints and backs. This herb is attacking viruses and bacteria.SupplementsIncorporating supplements is critical to fighting off the viruses that are causing your autoimmune disease. As I always recommend, talk to your medical practitioner before you begin taking supplements so you can work together to find the right dosages. Bring your doctor this information and work together to fight the virus with these powerful herbs and supplements. Be sure to get the right supplements. I have a list of preferred supplements that you can find on my website. ZincZinc deficiencies are rampant and can trigger an autoimmune condition. Simply taking zinc can be a huge step toward healing and can be critical for anyone suffering from the symptoms associated with autoimmune diseases. When you take zinc sulfate, it goes directly to where the virus is and starts working on stopping it in its tracks. Additionally, zinc increases your immune system’s ability to fight. B12 with adenosylcobalamin & methylcobalaminMany people are recommending B12 today, which is good. However, there is still very little talk about the right kind of B12. When fighting a viral condition, it is essential to use a combination of both adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Including a methylfolate supplement along with this specific B12 is especially helpful. Vitamin CWhen fighting a viral condition, it’s important to include some vitamin c supplements, particularly the liposomal c. The Liposomal c I recommend on my preferred supplements page does not contain any corn, which feeds viruses, unlike other brands. Ester C is also very helpful.
Send Enquiry
Read More
Stem cell PortalMarch 21, 2018Mending broken hearts with cardiomyocyte moldsWhether caused by an undetected birth defect or by a heart attack (myocardial infarction), when a heart sustains damage it can be difficult to repair.If heart muscle cells — cardiomyocytes — could be repaired by cells taken from one’s own body, the patient's recovery improves. But manufacturing heart cells requires an exacting process tailored specifically to an individual.In a study published recently in Advanced Functional Materials, a team of researchers at Michigan Technological University in collaboration with Harvard Medical School shows how cardiomyocytes grown in a heart-like environment mature more quickly, have improved functionality and are less likely to be rejected by patients’ bodies.Many people with heart injuries from heart attacks or birth defects could benefit from the “self-therapeutic” process of injecting healthy cells into the damaged heart muscle. Labs use induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which using biochemical cues can be “programmed” to become any type of cell, whether for the heart muscle or otherwise. Yet current processes result in underdeveloped cells.To date, manufacturing cardiomyocytes has occurred in two-dimensional settings (essentially, petri dishes). But the growth environment plays a large role in the ways the cells develop. Thus, simulating the actual heart environment — with lots of pressure and specific forces acting on the growing cells — could lead to more robust cardiomyocytes.“Unfortunately stem cell therapeutics don’t have high success rates, partly because the cells are not mature and fully functional. The maturation and functionality are essential, ” said Parisa Pour Shahid Saeed Abadi, Ph.D., assistant professor of mechanical engineering, whose work in creating heart cell growth environments is detailed in the study.Mimicking the natural heart environmentDr. Abadi and her co-authors have created three-dimensional substrates — essentially, molds — that recreate the environment in which heart cells grow inside the human body. Biomechanical properties the substrates induce include pressure and stiffness.“The mechanical properties of substrates play an important role in the cell behavior because the mechanical cues that cells sense in the actual (heart) environment is unique, ” Dr. Abadi said. “We are using biochemical and biomechanical cues to enhance the differentiation and maturation. If we don’t take advantage of the physical cues and only rely on chemical cues, the process suffers from low efficiency and batch-to-batch inconsistency.”Using photolithography and reflow processing, Dr. Abadi’s substrates are patterned at the micron and submicron levels, approximating the natural physical forces cells experience. Photolithography uses ultraviolet light to remove portions of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate to mold it into cylindrical shapes.Additional micro-patterning of the substrate changes the cytoskeleton in the cell and the shape of the nucleus, which cause the genes in the cell to change. As the cardiomyocytes mature, they beat stronger and resemble the cells found in natural, mature heart muscle.“On day one we start seeing the effect of the substrate on the morphology of the cells, ” Dr. Abadi said.Abadi’s lab continues to improve the substrate preparation methods. As cardiomyocytes need to communicate with each other during their growth, Dr. Abadi also plans to stimulate electrical conductivity between cells. Translational studies in animals are the next step for the research.These lab-fabricated, fluorescently stained cardiomyocytes — heart muscle cells — exhibit the maturation and functionality of heart cells grown within a heart.Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes beating in substrate.
Send Enquiry
Read More
HUMAN DEVELOPMENTHow to build a human brainSome steps for growing mini versions of human organs are easier than othersBY INGFEI CHEN 3:30PM, FEBRUARY 20, 2018SHARE ARTICLEorganoid brainBRAIN-MAKING 101 As blobs of two types of brainlike tissue fuse, interneurons (green) migrate from the left clump to the right, linking with neurons (not stained) in the right blob. On both sides, neural support cells called glia appear in purple.PAŞCA LAB/STANFORD UNIV.Magazine issue: Vol. 193, No. 4, March 3, 2018, p. 22SPONSOR MESSAGEIn a white lab coat and blue latex gloves, Neda Vishlaghi peers through a light microscope at six milky-white blobs. Each is about the size of a couscous grain, bathed in the pale orange broth of a petri dish. With tweezers in one hand and surgical scissors in the other, she deftly snips one tiny clump in half.When growing human brains, sometimes you need to do some pruning.The blobs are 8-week-old bits of brainlike tissue. While they wouldn’t be mistaken for Lilliputian-sized brains, some of their fine-grained features bear a remarkable resemblance to the human cerebral cortex, home to our memories, decision making and other high-level cognitive powers.Vishlaghi created these “minibrains” at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, where she’s a research assistant. First she immersed batches of human pluripotent stem cells — which can morph into any cell type in the body — in a special mix of chemicals.The free-floating cells multiplied and coalesced into itty-bitty balls of neural tissue. Nurtured with meticulously timed doses of growth-supporting ingredients, the cell clumps were eventually transferred to petri dishes of broth laced with Matrigel, a gelatin-like matrix of proteins.On day 56, the blobs display shadowy clusters of neural “rosettes.” Under a laser scanning microscope, razor-thin slices of those rosettes reveal loose-knit layers of a variety of dividing neural stem cells and the nerve cells, or neurons, they give rise to. The layered structures look similar to the architecture of a human fetal brain at 14 weeks of gestation.By eight weeks, brainlike clumps (top) show neural clusters called rosettes. Within one cluster (red box, expanded at bottom), stem cells (blue and teal) churn out layers of neural precursor cells (pink) and neurons (not stained).BOTH: M. WATANABE ET AL/CELL REPORTS 2017Across the globe, labs such as this one, led by UCLA developmental biologist and neuroscientist Bennett Novitch, are cultivating thousands of these brainy clumps for research. Less than five years ago, a team of biologists in Austria and the United Kingdom and one in Japan wowed the world when they announced they had made rudimentary bits of 3-D human cerebral cortex in a dish. Since then, researchers have been eagerly tinkering with techniques for producing these miniature brain models, like chefs obsessively refining their favorite recipes.“It’s like making a cake: You have many different ways in which you can do it, ” says Novitch, who prefers using the Japanese method with a few tweaks. “There are all sorts of little tricks that people have come up with to overcome some of the common challenges.”For instance, because the brain blobs lack a built-in blood supply, they must absorb enough oxygen and nutrients from the tissue-culture broth to remain healthy. To help, some labs circulate the broth around the tissue clumps. The UCLA researchers choose instead to grow theirs at higher oxygen levels and chop the blobs at the 35-day mark, when they are as wide as three millimeters, and then about every two weeks after. Sounds radical, but the slicing gives cells on the inside — some of which start dying — exposure to much-needed oxygen and nutrients. Those divided bits then continue growing separately. But cutting can be done only so many times before the expanding rosette structures inside are damaged.With all the experimenting, researchers have cooked up a lot of innovations, including some nifty progress reported in just the last year. Scientists have concocted tiny versions of several brain regions ranging from the hypothalamus, which regulates body temperature, thirst and hunger, to the movement-controlling basal ganglia. Electrical chatter among neurons, reflecting active brain circuits, has been detected. And research groups have recently begun linking bits of specific regions like Legos. Scientists have even observed some early developmental processes as they happen within the human brain blobs.Stem cell payoffThe work is part of a broader scientific bonanza that comes from coaxing human stem cells to self-assemble into balls of organlike tissue, known as organoids, that are usually no bigger than a lentil. Although the organoids don’t grow enough to replicate entire human organs, these mini-versions can mimic the 3-D cellular infrastructure of everything from our guts to our lungs. That’s something you can’t get from studies of rodents, which have different biology than humans do.Mini-organ models promise enormous advantages for understanding basic human biology, teasing apart human disease processes, and offering an accurate testing ground for finding or vetting drug therapies. And by creating personalized organoids from the reprogrammed cells of patients, scientists could study disease in a very individualized way — or maybe even use organoid structures to replace certain damaged tissues, such as in the liver or spinal cord.“Organoids offer an unprecedented level of access into the inner workings of the human brain, ” Novitch says, noting that our brains are largely off-limits to poking and cutting into for research. If scientists can study accurate models of working neural circuits in these brain bits, he and others say, researchers might finally get a handle on uniquely human neurological conditions. Such disorders, which include epilepsy and, experts theorize, schizophrenia and autism (SN Online: 7/17/15), can arise when the brain’s communication networks develop off-kilter.
Send Enquiry
Read More
Patients Cured Of Cataract Using Lenses Created From Stem CellsResearchers are now using regenerative medicine approach to remove congenital cataracts in infants, permitting remaining stem cells to regrow functional lenses. The project was a joint effort from University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Shiley Eye Institute, with colleagues in China. The findings were published in the journal Nature.The experimental treatment resulted in much fewer surgical complications than the current standard-of-care and resulted in regenerated lenses with superior visual function in all 12 of the pediatric cataract patients who received the new surgery. It’s important to note, however, that it has been tested in animals and in a small, human clinical trial. The follow video shows the current widely known practices to treat cataracts.Congenital cataracts — lens clouding that occurs at birth or shortly thereafter — is a significant cause of blindness in children. The clouded lens obstructs the passage of light to the retina and visual information to the brain, resulting in significant visual impairment. Current treatment is limited by the age of the patient and related complications. Most pediatric patients require corrective eyewear after cataract surgery.“An ultimate goal of stem cell research is to turn on the regenerative potential of one’s own stem cells for tissue and organ repair and disease therapy, ” said Kang Zhang, MD, PhD, chief of Ophthalmic Genetics, founding director of the Institute for Genomic Medicine and co-director of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering at the Institute of Engineering in Medicine, both at UC San Diego School of Medicine.In their research, Zhang and colleagues relied upon the regenerative potential of endogenous stem cells. Unlike other stem cell approaches that involve creating stem cells in the lab and introducing them back into the patient, with potential hurdles like pathogen transmission and immune rejection, endogenous stem cells are stem cells already naturally in place at the site of the injury or problem. In the case of the human eye, lens epithelial stem cells or LECs generate replacement lens cells throughout a person’s life, though production declines with age.Current cataract surgeries largely remove LECs within the lens; the lingering cells generate disorganized regrowth in infants and no useful vision. After confirming the regenerative potential of LECs in animal models, the researchers developed a novel minimally invasive surgery method that preserves the integrity of the lens capsule — a membrane that helps give the lens its required shape to function — and a way to stimulate LECs to grow and form a new lens with vision.In subsequent tests in animals with cataracts and in a small human trial, they found the new surgical technique allowed pre-existing LECs to regenerate functional lenses. In particular, the human trial involved 12 infants under the age of 2 treated with the new method and 25 similar infants receiving current standard surgical care. The latter control group experienced a higher incidence of post-surgery inflammation, early-onset ocular hypertension and increased lens clouding.The scientists reported fewer complications and faster healing among the 12 infants who underwent the new procedure and, after three months, a clear, regenerated biconvex lens in all of the patients’ eyes.“The success of this work represents a novel approach in how new human tissue or organ can be regenerated and human disease can be treated, and may have a broad impact on regenerative therapies by harnessing the regenerative power of our own body, ” said Zhang, who also has an appointment at Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System.
Send Enquiry
Read More
MEDICAL DEVICESGecko Biomedical CEO: We are more than a vascular sealant companyBy ARUNDHATI PARMARGecko Biomedical has developed a viscous polymer that can be used in various tissue reconstruction applicationsParis-based Gecko Biomedical began life as a vascular sealant company in December 2013 and CEO Christophe Bancel is now attempting to do a makeover. He would rather the French company be known as a tissue reconstruction company with an ability to produce a polymer that could be used in a variety of medical device applications.In an interview earlier this year in San Francisco, Bancel said the original technology came from MIT and Bob Langer’s lab and the first application is as a vascular sealant in tissue reconstruction. The polymer that Gecko has created have good adhesion capabilities, Bancel, who is also the founder, said. Hence the name Gecko. The green reptile has special, sticky toes that allow it to climb steep walls and be able to be suspended upside down.But now the goal is to use this new chemistry and build the industrial capability to produce the polymer en masse. And then use that to develop new applications in tissue reconstruction either solely or in partnership with larger medical device companies“Our polymers are made up of 3 monomers and you can play with the ratio, ” Bancel explained, adding that different proportions can lead to distinct properties. “We want to be involved in nerve reconstruction and nerve repair [for example].”So what are some of those polymer properties, especially in the vascular sealant space? Here’s how Bancel, who speaks with a decidedly French accent but is completely intelligible, described them:They are bioresorbable and fully hydrophobic so when you apply them inside the body, they don’t react with blood. They don’t get diluted.They only polymerize when you trigger a stimulus. In Gecko’s case, the stimulus is the light. Until you shine the light, the polymers stay the same.It looks like honey and is viscous. Because it’s viscous it doesn’t flow away so it’s very easy to apply and to use it during surgical procedures.Of competitors in the sealant market, Bancel wasn’t too worried.“You have products that have sealant functionality but not the way we do it, ” he declared, noting that current vascular sealant products in the marketplace are either fibrin-based or bovine, albumin-based.“The fibrin-based sealants and the bovine-based sealants they can get diluted by blood or water when doctors use it, ” Bancel said. “They are very liquid so they spill away. Their products become polymerized as soon as you mix them. In our case, the surgeon completes the procedure and within seconds the product moves from its unpolymerized liquid, viscous state into a polymerized, solid yet flexible state. So the doctor has full control.”If and when the sealant product, which has CE Mark, is launched in the U.S., Gecko would be taking on companies like Ethicon, part of Johnson & Johnson; CR Bard, Baxter, Cohera Medical and others.But the company does not intend to be a one-trick pony.“What is important is that we have been known as a company with a new sealant application, but this was just the tip of the iceberg, ” Bancel declared. “If we are working in vascular, cardiac, nerve, bone, ophthalmology, Gecko becomes an open R& D ecosystem on a proprietary technology. We [can] start to engage on a program that we develop by ourselves and now start to do designing for third parties — for larger medtechs.”He declined to identify who those larger medtechs are or could be.Gecko has raised 8 million euros in 2013 and 22.5 million euros in 2016. For its Series B, the company is planning to raise around $40-50 million. The product has CE Mark but will require undergoing a premarket approval process here in the U.S. to go through the FDA. The company hopes to file an investigational device exemption and begin selling next year.
Send Enquiry
Read More
A breakthrough in our understanding of how red blood cells developPosted on March 15, 2018 by Kat J. McAlpine Posted in People, Science, Therapeutics By taking a deep dive into the molecular underpinnings of Diamond-Blackfan anemia, scientists have made a new discovery about what drives the development of mature red blood cells from the earliest form of blood cells, called hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem cells.For the first time, cellular machines called ribosomes — which create proteins in every cell of the body — have been linked to blood stem cell differentiation. The findings, published today in Cell, have revealed a potential new therapeutic pathway to treat Diamond-Blackfan anemia. They also cap off a research effort at Boston Children’s Hospital spanning nearly 80 years and several generations of scientists.Diamond-Blackfan anemia — a severe, rare, congenital blood disorder — was first described in 1938 by Louis Diamond, MD, and Kenneth Blackfan, MD, of Boston Children’s. The disorder impairs red blood cell production, impacting delivery of oxygen throughout the body and causing anemia. Forty years ago, David Nathan, MD, of Boston Children’s determined that the disorder specifically affects the way blood stem cells become mature red blood cells.Then, nearly 30 years ago, Stuart Orkin, MD, also of Boston Children’s, identified a protein called GATA1 as being a key factor in the production of hemoglobin, the essential protein in red blood cells that is responsible for transporting oxygen. Interestingly, in more recent years, genetic analysis has revealed that some patients with Diamond-Blackfan have mutations that block normal GATA1 production.Now, the final pieces of the puzzle — what causes Diamond-Blackfan anemia on a molecular level and how exactly ribosomes and GATA1 are involved — have finally been solved by another member of the Boston Children’s scientific community, Vijay Sankaran, MD, PhD, senior author of the new Cell paper.“Much of the history of how this disorder works was written at Boston Children’s, ” says Sankaran, who is a hematologist/oncologist and a principal investigator at the Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. “Now, we can move on to the next era of research — what we can do to treat it.”Learning from an error of naturePrevious studies have found that many patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia have mutated ribosomal protein genes. But the question has remained: Do these mutations have something to do with GATA1 and why do they only impair the maturation of red blood cells? In Diamond-Blackfan, other mature blood cells — such as platelets, T cells and B cells — still fare well despite mutations of ribosomal protein or GATA1 genes.EPO molecule which is linked to production of red blood cellsLast year, Sankaran’s research on Diamond-Blackfan anemia led to a discovery that saved an infant’s life.“There has been controversy over whether a ribosomal protein mutation changes the composition of the ribosomes or the quantity of the ribosomes, ” Sankaran says. “We know now that it is the latter.”By closely examining human cell samples from patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Sankaran and his team of collaborators found that the quantity of ribosomes within blood cell precursors directly influences their ability to produce effective levels of GATA1, which, if you remember, is needed for hemoglobin production and also for red blood cell production.Now, finally tying all the pieces together, Sankaran and his team have definitively found that a reduced number of ribosomes slashes the output of GATA1 proteins inside blood stem cells, therefore impairing their differentiation into mature red blood cells.An opportunity for gene therapyTheir finding supports the hypothesis that the presence of GATA1 proteins in early blood stem cells helps prime them for differentiation into red blood cells. Without enough ribosomes to produce enough GATA1 proteins, these early cells simply never receive the signal to become red blood cells.“This raises the question of whether we can design a gene therapy to overcome the GATA1 deficiency, ” Sankaran says. “We now have a tremendous interest in this approach and believe it can be done.”Although a bone marrow transplant from a matched donor can treat Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Sankaran says that a gene therapy would be advantageous since it would use a patient’s own engineered cells, avoiding dangerous risks associated with graft versus host disease.“I think what’s great is that we can learn about developmental biology just by looking at our own patients very carefully, ” says Sankaran. “Genetic errors can give us the chance to pick apart the complex pieces of health and discover how they relate to one another.”In addition to Sankaran, additional authors of the new paper are Rajiv K. Khajuria, Mathias Munschauer, Jacob C. Ulirsch, Claudia Fiorini, Leif S. Ludwig, Sean K. McFarland, Nour J. Abdulhay, Harrison Specht, Hasmik Keshishian, D.R. Mani, Marko Jovanovic, Steven R. Ellis, Charles P. Fulco, Jesse M. Engreitz, Sabina Schütz, John Lian, Karen W. Gripp, Olga K. Weinberg, Geraldine S. Pinkus, Lee Gehrke, Aviv Regev, Eric S. Lander, Hanna T. Gazda, Winston Y. Lee, Vikram G. Panse and Steven A. Carr.This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (DK103794, R33 HL120791 and T32 HL007574), a Manton Center Endowed Scholar Award, a DBA Foundation and March of Dimes Basil O’Connor Scholar Award, a Boehringer Ingelheim MD Fellowship, the Swiss National Science Foundation, Novartis Foundation, Olga Maybenfisch Stiftung and the European Research Council (EURIBIO260676).
Send Enquiry
Read More
Page 1 1